Allelopathic Potentiality of Euphorbia hypericifolia L. on Germination and Seedling Development of Sympatric Crops and Weeds


  • Lawrence Monah Ndam Agronomic and Applied Molecular Sciences, University of Buea
  • Abwe Mercy Ngone Department of Agronomic and Applied Molecular Sciences, University of Buea, Cameroon
  • Raymond Ndip Nkongho Department of Agronomic and Applied Molecular Sciences, University of Buea, Cameroon
  • Augustina Genla Nwana Fongod Department of Biological Science, University of Yaounde 1, Yaounde 337, Cameroon
  • Yoshiharu Fujii Department of International Environmental and Agricultural Sciences, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Tokyo 183‑8509, Japan



Euphorbia hypericifolia, a non-native herbaceous weedy plant was found to often form disproportionately dense, virtually monospecific stands in the Mount Bambouto Caldera, Cameroon. This observation is within the purview of allelopathy and is attributed to the release of botanicals by non native plants that harm naïve native flora, creating significant problems for agriculture and the environment. We investigated if the invasiveness of E. hypericifolia could be explained by its allelopathic potential at varying concentrations on five indicator plants. The results showed that the leaf, root and stem aqueous extracts of the plant exhibited significant inhibitory effects on the germination, radicle and plumule lengths of Biden pilosa, Amaranthus spinosus, Lactuca sativa, Zea mays and Lycopersicon esculentum at 100 % by 75.0, 69.4, 95.6, 28.0 and 97.2 %, respectively.  The leaf extract was the most potent, while the stem extract was the least. The extract of E. hypericifolia was stimulatory (Lower concentrations) and inhibitory to the germination and growth of the test plants and its effect was concentration-dependent with the roots of target plants being more sensitive to the extracts than the plumule. L. esculentum was the most susceptible species to E. hypericifolia extracts while Z.  mays was more tolerant than any of the tested plants. Results of total chlorophyll pigment accretion showed declining levels of chlorophyll detected in the leaves of tomato transplants cultivated in the augmented soils with rising dosage of the leaf residue of E. hypericifolia. B. pilosa planted on E. hypericifolia infested soil (EIS) showed very poor emergence recording only 7.5 % after 6 weeks as compared to 83.0 % in non E. hypericifolia infested soil (NIS). Qualitative phytochemical screening indicates E. hypericifolia is rich in secondary metabolites including alkaloids, glycosides, flavonoids, phenolics, tanins, Steriods and saponins. Acetone was the best extractant amongst the solvents used. This study has proven the allelopathic potential of E. hypericifolia and revealed some allelochemicals that may be exploited for the development of bioherbicides and plant growth promotion from natural products.


Invasive plants, Euphorbia hypericifolia, Allelopathy


Download data is not yet available.


A. Shekoofa, S. Safikhan, T.B. Raper, and S. A. Butler, “Allelopathic Impacts of Cover Crop Species and Termination Timing on Cotton Germination and Seedling Growth” Journal f Agronomy vol.10, no.1: pp.638-647. http://doi:10.3390/agronomy10050638

A post-2020 target on invasive alien species (IAS), “An IUCN & IUCN SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group proposal for a global target to address IAS, which is made without prejudice to IUCNs final position on the post-2020 framework.

D. Moodley, L. Foxcroft, A. Novoa, K. Pyšková, J. Perg, and P. Pyšek, “Invasive alien species add to the uncertain future of protected areas” NeoBiota vol. 57: pp. 1–5, May 18,2020.

J. M.Waititu, C. N. Mundia1, and A.W. Sichangi, “Assessing distribution changes of selected native and alien invasive plant species under changing climatic conditions in Nyeri County, Kenya” AUGUST 25, 2020:

E.M.Lind, J.D. Parker, “Novel Weapon testing: Are invasive plants more chemically defended than native plants? Plo one vol. 5, no. 5, pp. 1-3, May 3, 2010, https://10.1371/journal.pone.0010429

G. Y. Ni, P. Zhao, Q. Q. Huang, Y. P. Hou, C. M. Zhou, Q. P. Cao, and S. L. Peng, “Exploring the Novel Weapons Hypothesis with invasive plant species in China” Allelopathy Journal vol. 29, No. 2. pp. 199-214, Feb 6, 2012.

F. Cheng, and Z. Cheng, “Research Progress on the use of Plant Allelopathy in Agriculture and the Physiological and Ecological Mechanisms of Allelopathy” Front. Plant Sci. 6:1020, pp.1-16, November 4, 2015. https://doi:10.3389/fpls.2015.01020

R.M.Callaway, and W.M. Ridenour, “Novel Weapons: Invasive Success and the Evolution of Increased Competitive Ability”. Frontier Ecological Environment vol. 2: pp.436–443., April, 2004

H. Shi, S. Sun, X. Liu, J. Fan, J. Wang, K. Zhao, and W. Wang, “Allelopathic Potential and Mechanism of Rosebay Willow herb [Chamaenerion angustifolium (L.) Scop.] Demonstrated on Model Plant Lettuce” Phyton -International Journal of Experimental Botany vol. 89:Pp.45-123, June 11, 2020, https://DOI:10.32604/phyton.2020.011620

N. Novak, M.Novaki, K. Barić, M. Šćepanović, And D. Ivić, “Allelopathic potential of segetal and ruderal invasive alien plants” Journal of Central European Agriculture, 2018, 19(2), pp.408-422, Feb,2018.https:// DOI: /10.5513/JCEA01/19.2.2116

L. Kural, and R.Y. Özkan, “Allelopathic potential of white cabbage on some plants” Plant, Soil and Environment vol. 66:pp.559–563 Nov, 2020.

A. Mehmood, A. Tanveer, M.A. Nadeem., and Z.A. Zahir, “Comparative allelopathic potential of metabolites of two Alternanthera species against germination and seedling growth of rice” Planta Daninha vol. 32, no.1:Pp.1-10, Feb 2. 2014,

H. Kato-Noguchi, “Involvement of Allelopathy in the Invasive Potential of Tithonia diversifolia” Plants vol. 9: pp.766, June 19, 2020. https://doi:10.3390/plants9060766

A. Qayyum, M.K. Rafiq, K. Zahara, Y..Bibi, A.Sher, M.T. Rafiq, R. Aziz, and A. Manaf, “Allelopathic Effects Of Invasive Prosopis Juliflora On Grass Species Of Potohar Plateau, Pakistan” Planta Daninha vol.36: pp. 018-18250, Sept 13, 2018. https:// Doi: 10.1590/S0100-83582018360100123

B. Chen, H. Liao, W. Chen, H. Wei and S. Peng, “Role of allelopathy in plant invasion and control of invasive plants” Allelopathy Journal vol. 41 no. 2: pp. 155-166, July, 2017.

M. Milanovića, S. Knappa, P. Pyšekc, and I. Kühna, “Linking traits of invasive plants with ecosystem services and disservices” Ecosystem Services vol. 42:pp.101072. Jan 21, 2020.

P. K. Raia, and J.S. Singhb, “Invasive alien plant species: Their impact on environment, ecosystem services and human health” Ecological Indicators vol. 111: pp.106020, Jan 9, 2020.

P. Kanatas, “Potential role of Eucalyptus spp. and Acacia spp. allelochemicals in weed management” Chilean Journal of Agricultural Research 80(3) May 28, 2020. May 2020. https:// doi:104067/S0718-58392020000300452

R.Dukpa, A. Tiwari, and D. Kapoor, “Biological management of allelopathic plant Parthenium sp.” Open Agriculture vol. 5: pp.252–26,2020 http://doi:org/10.1515/opag-20200027

R.J.Willis, “The historical bases of the concept of allelopathy” Journal of the History of Biology vol. 18, pp.71-102, March, 1985,

Senguttuvan, S. Paulsamy, and K. Karthika, “Phytochemical analysis and evaluation of leaf and root parts of the medicinal herb, Hypochaeris radicata L. for in vitro antioxidant activities” Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine Vol. 1: pp.359-367, April 2, 2014. https://doi:10.12980/APJTB.4.2014C1030

M. I. Hussain , M.A. El-Sheikh , and M.J. Reigosa, “Allelopathic Potential of Aqueous Extract from Acacia melanoxylon R. Br. on Lactuca sativa. Journal of Plants vol. 9:pp. 1228. July 24, 2019, https://doi:10.3390/plants9091228

S.S. Narwal, “Allelopathy in Weed Management” Allelopathy Journal vol. 2, pp.203-254, January, 1999

H. Ohigashi, M. Kaji, J. Hoshino, J. Jato. and Koshimizu, K.Koshimizu, “The Search for Useful Plants in the Tropical Rain Forest of Cameroon and the Biological Activities of these Plants. Africa-Kenkyu” Journal of African Studies vol.30: pp.1-14, 1987

P. Lorenzo, M Hussain, and L. González , “Role of Allelopathy During Invasion Process by Alien Invasive Plants in Terrestrial Ecosystems” Journal of Allelopathy Oct 17, 2014,. https://DOI: 10.1007/978-3-642-30595-5_1

W. Chengxu, Z. Mingxing, C, Xuhui, and Q. Bo, “Review on allelopathy of exotic invasive plants” Procedia Eng vol.18:pp.240–246. 2011.

J. M. Onana, “The Vascular Plants of Cameroon: A Taxonomic Checklist with IUCN Assessment”. In: Onana J.-M. (Eds.) Flore du Cameroun occasional. Yaoundé, IRAD-National Herbarium of Cameroon. vol. 39, no: pp.1–195, 2011

Y. Harvey, B. Tchieuque, and M. Cheek, “The Plants of Lebialem Highland, Cameroon” A Conservation Checklist. Royal Botanic Garden, Kew, UK, pp.7-31. 2010

F. A. Toh, T. E. Angwafo, L. Ndam and A. Mvondo Ze, “The Socio-Economic Impact of Land Use and Land Cover Change on the Inhabitants of Mount Bambouto Caldera of the Western Highlands of Cameroon” , Advances in Remote Sensing vol.7, no.1:pp.25-45, January 2018

D. Nafan, B.N.Divine, K. César, K.Christophe , and S. Abdourahamane “Phenotypic Diversity of Shea (Vitellaria Paradoxa C. F. Gaertn.) Populations across Four Agro-Ecological Zones of Cameroon” Journal of Crop Science and Biotechnology vol.10, no. 4: pp.211- 218, 2008

Y. Harvey, B. Tchieuque, and M. Cheek, “The Plants of Lebialem Highland, Cameroon,” A Conservation Checklist” Royal Botanic Garden, Kew, UK, pp.7-31, 2010.

MINAGRIRD, “Final Project Report on Weed diversity in subsistent farming systems in SouthWestern Cameroon” Pp. 105, 2014

S. Sciandrello, P. Minissale, and G. Guisso de Galdo, “Euphorbia hypericifolia L. (Euphorbiaceae , a new Alien Species for Italy” Journal of Plant Science and Geography vol.5, no.6:pp.214-237, March 24, 2016, https://doi10.1080/00837792.2016.1152669

CABI “Fallopia japonica [Original text by AN Author] In: Invasive Species Compendium. Wallingford, UK: CAB International” compendia interactive encyclopedias, 2021,

A. Rivera-Mondragón, S. Bijttebier, E. Tuenter, D. Custers1, O. ortíz, L. Pieters, C. Caballero-George, S. Apers and K. Foubert, “Phytochemical characterization and comparative studies of four Cecropia species collected in panama using multivariate data analysis” Scientific reports vol. 9: pp. 1763, Feb11,2019.

I. Rezendes, E. R. Baseggio, L. Galon, D. Brandler, C. T. Forte, I. Aspiazú, M. B. Franceschetti, and A. Ferreira, “Allelopathy of weeds on the growth of vegetables”Journal of Plant Sciences vol. 10: Pp. 8-20, April 1, 2020. http://cpsjournal.orge-ISSN 2237-4027

A. H. Al-shatti, A. Redha, P. Suleman and R. Al-Hasan “The Allelopathic potential of Conocarpus lancifolius (Engl.) leaves on Dicot (Vignia sinensis L.) Monocot (Zea mays L.) and Soil-Borne Pathogenic Fungi” American Journal of plant Sciences vol.5, pp. 2889-2903, 2014

A. Mungole, S. Day, R. Kamble, H. Kanfade, A. Chaturvedi, and P. Zanwar, “Active Phytochemical and Antibacterial Potentiality of In-vitro Regenerated Plantlets of Canscora decurrens (Dalzell)” Indian Journal of Science and Technology 6: 679-683, 2010

Y. Fujii, S.S. Parvez, M.M. Parvez, Y. Ohmae, and O. Iida, “Screening of 239 Medicinal Plant Species for Allelopathic Activity Using Sandwich Method” Weed Biology and Management 3: 233-241, 2003

B. Bezeng, K. Yessoufou, P. Taylor, and S. Tesfamichae, “Expected spatial patterns of alien woody plants in South Africa’s protected areas under current scenario of climate change” Scientific reports vol. 10: pp.7038., 2005

P. Piyatida, K. Suenaga, and H. Kato-Noguchi, “Allelopathic Potential and Chemical Composition of Rhinacanthus nasutus Extracts” Allelopathy Journal vol. 26, no.2: 207-216, 2010

68 D.I. Arnon, “Copper enzyme polyphenoloxides in isolated chloroplast in Beta vulgaris” Plant Physiology. 24: 1-15, 1949

J. Kamal, “ALLELOPATHY; A BRIEF REVIEW” Journal of Novel Applied Sciences Available online at ©2020 JNAS Journal-2020-9-1/1-12 ISSN 2322-5149 ©2020 JNAS

H.F. Harrison, D.M. Jackson, A.P. Keinath, P.C. Marino, and T. Pullaro, “Broccoli production in cowpea, soybean, and velvet bean cover crop mulches. HortTechnology 14:484–487, 2004

J. Kamal, “Impact of allelopathy of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) roots extract on physiology of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)” Afr. J. biotechnol, vol.10, no.65: pp. 14465-14477, 2011

M. A. Turk, K.D. Lee and A. M. Tawaha, “Inhibitory effects of aqueous extracts of Black mustard on germination and growth of radish” Research Journal of Agriculture and Bilogical sciences 1(3):pp. 227-231, Jan 9, 2005.

Inderjit, and K.M.M. Dakshini, “Quercetin and Quercetrin from Luchea lanceolata and their Effects on Growth of Asparagus bean. In: Inderjit, Dakshini, K.M.M. and Einhellig, F.A. (Eds.). Allelopathy: Organisms, Processes and Application” American Chemical Society vol. 582:pp. 86-95, Dec 9, 1995, https://10.1021/bk-1995-0582.ch006

H.l. Semenchenko, A.V. Melnyk, V.F. Zavertalyuk, A.V. Zavertalyuk, V.I. Pastukhov, and R.V. Kyrychenko, “The effectiveness of compatible agrophytocenoses depending on the allelopathic interaction of plants” Ukrainian Journal of Ecology vol. 10, No. 4: pp.54-59, August 25, 2020. https://doi: 10.15421/2020_167

J.R. Teasdale, “Cover crops, smother plants, and weed management. In: J.L. Hatfield, D.D. Buhler, and B.A. Stewart (eds.).Integrated weed and soil management. Ann Arbor” Press, Chelsea, Mich. p. 247–270, 1998

G. Thiébaut, M. Tarayre, and H. Rodríguez-Pérez, “Allelopathic Effects of Native Versus Invasive Plants on One Major Invader”Frontiers in Plant Science vol. 10:pp. 854, July 2, 2019. https://doi:10.3389/fpls.2019.00854

T. Bareke, “Biology of seed development and germination physiology” Adv plants Agric Res vol. 8, no. 4: pp336-346, August 8, 2018, https://10.15406/apar.2018.08.00335

C. Eduardo de Souza Nascimento, C. Domingues da Silva, I. Leal, Wagner de Souza Tavares, J. Eduardo Serrão, J. C. Zanuncio, and M. Tabarell, “Seed germination and early seedling survival of the invasive species Prosopis juliflora (Fabaceae) depend on habitat and seed dispersal mode in the Caatinga dry forest” PeerJ, vol. 8:pp.9607, Sept 3,2020. http://doi 10.7717/peerj.9607

H. Cheng, S. Wang, M. Wei, Y. Yu, and C. Wang, “Effect of leaf water extracts of four Asteraceae alien invasive plants on germination performance of Lactuca sativa L. under acid deposition” Research square vol.1:pp.1-13, March, 2012,

J.A. Caamal-Maldonado, J. J. Jimenez-Osornio, A. Torres-Barragan, and A.L. Anaya. “The use of allelopathic legume cover crops and mulch species for weed control in cropping systems” Agron. J. vol.93:27–36, 2001, https://doi:10.3167/ares.2001.0401044

M. Scognamiglio, B. D’Abrosca, and A. Fiorentino, “Plant growth inhibitors: Allelopathic role or phytotoxic effects” Photochemistry reviews vol. 12: pp.803-830, March 19, 2013,

Y. Fujii, T. Shibuya, and T.Yasuda “Survey of Japanese Weed and Crops, for the Detection of Water-extractable Allelopathic Chemicals using Richards’ Function Fitted to Lettuce Germination Test” Weed Resource. Japan 35: 362-370, 1990

E.C. Hill, M. Ngouajio, and M.G. Nair, “Differential response of weeds and vegetablecrops to aqueous extracts of hairy vetch and cowpea. HortScience 41:695–700, 2006

S. Bhattacharya, S. Namasudra, S. Debnath, and A. Saha, “Comparative Allelopathic Effects of Two Weed Extracts on Seed Germination and Seedling Growth of Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp and Abelmoschus esculentus L.” Defence Life Science Journal, vol. 5, No: pp. 204-210, July 2020. https:// DOI: 10.14429/dlsj.5.15653

C. Fortwangler, “Untangling Introduced and Invasive Animals” Environment and Society: Advances in Research No 4: 41–59, April, 2013. https://doi:10.3167/ares.2013.040104

J. J. Meyer, C. E. Schutte, J. W. Hurter, N. S. Galt, P. Degashu, G. Breetzke, D. Baranenko, and N. L. Meyer, “The allelopathic, adhesive, hydrophobic and toxic latex of Euphorbia species is the cause of fairy circles investigated at several locations in Namibia” BMC Ecology vol. 20:pp.45. 2020.

K..Lapin, J.Oettel, H. Steiner, M. Langmaier, D. Sustic, F. Starlinger, G. Kindermann, and G. Frank, “Invasive alien plant species in unmanaged forest reserves, Austria” NeoBiota vol. 48: pp.71–96, July 15, 2019. https://doi: 10.3897/neobiota.48.3474

Y.Yuan, B. Wang, S. Zhang, J. Tang, C. Tu, S. Hu, W. Jean, H. Yong, and X. Chen, “Enhanced allelopathy and competitive ability of invasive plant Solidago canadensis in its introduced range” Vol. 6 No. 3:pp. 253–263, June 2013. https://doi:10.1093/jpe/rts033

J. kamal, “Jordan Journal of Applied Science” Journal of Novel Applied Sciences vol. 9, no. 1:Pp. 1-12, January 2020.

S. E. Ahmed, N. K. Messiha, R. R. El-Masry, and M. A. El-Dabaa, “The dual allelopathic capacity of two Brassicaceae plants’ seed powder in controlling Orobanche crenata infesting Pisum sativum as well as stimulating its growth and yield” National Research Centre vol.44, no. 17:pp.2-8, March 2020.

S.K. Maity, and A.K. Samanta, “Allelopathic influence of Eupatorium odoratum L. on germination and seedling growth of some pulses” International Research Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences vol.5.Nov 8, 2020 RNI : WBENG/2016/76189

S. Abugre, and S.J.Quashie-Sam, “Evaluating the Allelopathic effect of Jatropha curcas aqueous extract on germination, radicle and plumule length of crops” International Journal of Agriculture and Biolog vol.12 no. 5: pp. 769-772, 2010, https://10-012/MFA/2010/12-5- 769-772

F.A. Einhellig, J.A.Rasmussen, A.M. Hejl, and I.F. Souza, “Effects of Root Exudate Sorgoleone on Photosynthesis” Journal of Chemical Ecology vol. 19:pp. 369-375, 1993

R. Vaishali, and C. Alka, “Allelopathic effect of some plants on morphological attributes of invasive alien weed: Malachra capitata (L.)L.”GSC Biological and Pharmaceutical Sciences vol. 6 no. 2:pp. 108–114, Feb 27 2019.

M. J. Adler, and C. A. Chase, “Comparison of the Allelopathic Potential of Leguminous Summer Cover Crops: Cowpea, Sunn Hemp, and Velvet bean” Hortscience 42(2):289–293. 2007. Dec 03, 2006:

M. Imatomi, P. Novaes, and S. C.Gualtieri, “ Insterspecific variation in the allelopathic potential of the family Myrtaceae” Acta Botanica Brasilica vol.27 no.1: pp.54-61, Oct 10, 2013

Fujii, Y., Shibuya, T. and Yasuda, T. (1990). Survey of Japanese Weed and Crops, for the Detection of Water-extractable Allelopathic Chemicals using Richards’ Function Fitted to Lettuce Germination Test. Weed Resource. Japan vol. 35: 362-370.

M. Maver, B. Miras-Moreno, L. Lucini, M. Trevisan, Y. Pii, S. Cesco, and T. Mimmo, “New insights in the allelopathic traits of different barley genotypes: Middle Eastern and Tibetan wild-relative accessions vs. cultivated modern barley” Journal of pone vol. 15, No.4:pp.231-976. April 23, 2020.

F.A. Einhellig, “Allelopathy: Current status and future goals In: Allelopathy: Organisms, Processes and Applications. Edited by Inderjit, K. M. M. Dakishini and F. A. Einhellig, ACS Symposium Series” American Chemical Society vol.582: pp. 1-25, 1995

J.D.Weidenhamer, D. C. Hartnett, and J.T. Romeo, “Density-dependent Phytotoxicity: Distinguishing Resource Competition and Allelopathic Interference in Plants. Journal of Applied Ecology vol. 26, no. 2: 613-624, August, 1989,

M. Granata, F. Bracco, and R. Catoni, “Phenotypic plasticity of two invasive alien plant species inside a deciduous forest in a strict nature reserve in Italy” Journal of Sustainable Forestry, vol. 39, no. 4:pp.346-364, Sept 30, 2019. https://doi:10.1080/10549811.2019.1670678

E.J. Solteiro, J.A. Machado, and P.B. Oliveira, “An Evolutionary Approach to Robot Structure and Trajectory Optimization,” ICAR’01-10th International Conference on Advanced Robotics, Budapest, pp. 333-338, 22-25 August 2001,

S. Dallali, S. Rouz, H. Aichi, and H. Hassine, “Phenolic contentand allelopathic potential of leaves and rhizosphere soil aqueous extracts of white horehound (Maribum vulgare L.)” Journal of new sciences, Agriculture and Biotechnology vol. 39, no.3: pp. 2106-2120, March 1, 2017.

O.O. Otusanya, O.J. Illori, and A.A. Adelusi “Allelopathic effect of Tithonia diversifolia (Hemsl) A. Gray on Germination and Growth of Amaranthus cruentus” Research Journal of Environmental Science vol. 1, no. 6: pp.285-293, 2007

S.M. El-Darier, E.T. El-Kenany, E.E. Fawzy, “Assessment of contribution of allelospoly and allelopathy to interference of Medicago sativa with Raphanus sativus” Egypt. J. Exp. Biol. (Bot.) vol. 15, no. 2: 205 – 215 2019 .https://DOI: 10.5455/egyjebb.20190628044001

S. Krajšek, E. Bahčič, U.S. Čoko and J. D. Koce, “Disposal methods for selected invasive plant species used as ornamental garden plants” Management of Biological Invasions vol. 11, no. 2:pp. 293–305, Feb 28, 2020. 293–305

R. Marchiosi, W. D. Santos and R.P. constantin, “Biosynthesis and metabolic actions of simple phenolic acids in plants” Phytochem Rev vol.19: pp. 865-906, May 29, 2020,

L.M. Ndam, A.M. Mih , A.G.N. Fongod, A.S. Tening, N.A. Temenu, J.E. Enang, and Y. Fujii, “Phytochemical Screening of the Bioactive Compounds in Twenty (20) Cameroonian Medicinal Plants” International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Sciences vol. 3, no. 12: 768-778, 2014

L.M. Ndam, A.M. Mih, A.G.N. Fongod, A.S. Tening, R.K. Tonjock, and Y. Fujii, “Phytochemical analysis, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of Euphorbia golondrina L.C. Wheeler (Euphorbiaceae Juss.): an unexplored medicinal herb reported from Cameroon” Springer Plus vol. 2, no. 5:264, 2016

U. Blum, and T.M. Gerig, “Interrelationship Between p-coumaric Acid Evapotranspration, Soil Water Content and Leaf Expansion” Journal of Chemical Ecology vol. 32: 1817-1834, 2006

J. N. Eloff, “Which extractant should be used for the screening and isolation of antimicrobial components from plants?” J Ethnopharmacol vol. 60:pp.1–8, 1998






Research Article

How to Cite

L. M. Ndam, A. M. . Ngone, R. N. . Nkongho, A. G. N. . Fongod, and Y. Fujii, “Allelopathic Potentiality of Euphorbia hypericifolia L. on Germination and Seedling Development of Sympatric Crops and Weeds”, Int. Ann. Sci., vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 134-150, Apr. 2021.