Allelopathic Potentiality of Euphorbia hypericifolia L. on Germination and Seedling Development of Sympatric Crops and Weeds

Authors

  • Lawrence Monah Ndam Agronomic and Applied Molecular Sciences, University of Buea https://orcid.org/0000-0002-5201-3538
  • Abwe Mercy Ngone Department of Agronomic and Applied Molecular Sciences, University of Buea, Cameroon
  • Raymond Ndip Nkongho Department of Agronomic and Applied Molecular Sciences, University of Buea, Cameroon
  • Augustina Genla Nwana Fongod Department of Biological Science, University of Yaounde 1, Yaounde 337, Cameroon
  • Yoshiharu Fujii Department of International Environmental and Agricultural Sciences, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Tokyo 183‑8509, Japan

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.21467/ias.10.1.134-150

Abstract

Euphorbia hypericifolia, a non-native herbaceous weedy plant was found to often form disproportionately dense, virtually monospecific stands in the Mount Bambouto Caldera, Cameroon. This observation is within the purview of allelopathy and is attributed to the release of botanicals by non native plants that harm naïve native flora, creating significant problems for agriculture and the environment. We investigated if the invasiveness of E. hypericifolia could be explained by its allelopathic potential at varying concentrations on five indicator plants. The results showed that the leaf, root and stem aqueous extracts of the plant exhibited significant inhibitory effects on the germination, radicle and plumule lengths of Biden pilosa, Amaranthus spinosus, Lactuca sativa, Zea mays and Lycopersicon esculentum at 100 % by 75.0, 69.4, 95.6, 28.0 and 97.2 %, respectively.  The leaf extract was the most potent, while the stem extract was the least. The extract of E. hypericifolia was stimulatory (Lower concentrations) and inhibitory to the germination and growth of the test plants and its effect was concentration-dependent with the roots of target plants being more sensitive to the extracts than the plumule. L. esculentum was the most susceptible species to E. hypericifolia extracts while Z.  mays was more tolerant than any of the tested plants. Results of total chlorophyll pigment accretion showed declining levels of chlorophyll detected in the leaves of tomato transplants cultivated in the augmented soils with rising dosage of the leaf residue of E. hypericifolia. B. pilosa planted on E. hypericifolia infested soil (EIS) showed very poor emergence recording only 7.5 % after 6 weeks as compared to 83.0 % in non E. hypericifolia infested soil (NIS). Qualitative phytochemical screening indicates E. hypericifolia is rich in secondary metabolites including alkaloids, glycosides, flavonoids, phenolics, tanins, Steriods and saponins. Acetone was the best extractant amongst the solvents used. This study has proven the allelopathic potential of E. hypericifolia and revealed some allelochemicals that may be exploited for the development of bioherbicides and plant growth promotion from natural products.

Keywords:

Invasive plants, Euphorbia hypericifolia, Allelopathy

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2021-04-18

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[1]
L. M. Ndam, A. M. . Ngone, R. N. . Nkongho, A. G. N. . Fongod, and Y. Fujii, “Allelopathic Potentiality of Euphorbia hypericifolia L. on Germination and Seedling Development of Sympatric Crops and Weeds”, Int. Ann. Sci., vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 134-150, Apr. 2021.