Implication of Socio-economic Factors on Land Use and Forest Cover Changes in and Around Magamba Nature Reserve in Tanzania

Perception of Local Stakeholders


  • Solomon Jeremiah Sembosi Department of Research and Protection, Southern Tanzania Elephant Program, Iringa



Forest cover, Land use, Cover changes, Magamba Nature Reserve, Tanzania


Rural settlements in mountainous regions are a typical process that occurs in many places around the world and have a number of implications on the landscape. Among them is a threat it possesses to the conservation and management of Afromontane ecosystems. This study assessed the socio-economic factors that drive the changes in land use and forest cover and the extent of land use and vegetation cover in and around Magamba Nature Reserve. Focus group discussion, direct field observation and household survey were used to acquire socio-economic information that impacts land use and forest cover. Through the use of Remote Sensing and GIS methods Landsat satellite images of 1995, 2008 and 2015 were employed to identify the extent of the changes in land use and forest cover. The perceived factors for the changes include education level, unemployment, landless/limited, landholding, population pressure, expansion of built-up areas and agricultural land at the expense of other land covers. This study revealed the transformation of natural forest and associated vegetation from one form to another. There was a decrease in natural vegetation from 61.06% in 1995 to 26.02% in 2015 and increase in built-up areas by 6.69% and agricultural areas by 4.70%. This study recommends conservation monitoring and strong law enforcement relating to natural resources so as to promote sustainable use of resources to rescue the diminishing ecosystem services.


Download data is not yet available.


<p>Achard, F., Eva, H. D., Stibig, H. J., Mayaux, P., Gallego, J., Richards, T., and Malingreau, J. P. (2002). Determination of deforestation rates of the world's humid tropical forests. <em>Science</em>, <em>297</em>(5583),999-1002.</p>
<p>Agarwal, C., Green, G. M., Grove, J. M., Evans, T. P., and Schweik, C. M., 2002. A Review and Assessment of Land-Use Change Models: Dynamics of Space, Time, and Human Choice. General Technical Report NE-297. Newtown Square, Pennsylvania: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northeastern Research Station. 61 pp.</p>
<p>Ali, A. (2018). Forest-based livelihoods, income, and poverty: Empirical evidence from the Himalayan region of rural Pakistan.&nbsp;<em>Journal of Rural Studies</em>,&nbsp;<em>57</em>, 44-54.</p>
<p>Angelsen, A., and Kaimowitz, D. (Eds.). (2001). <em>Agricultural technologies and tropical deforestation</em>. CABi.</p>
<p>Baus, D. (2017). Overpopulation and the Impact on the Environment.</p>
<p>Bracchetti, L., Carotenuto, L., &amp; Catorci, A. (2012). Land-cover changes in a remote area of central Apennines (Italy) and management directions. <em>Landscape and Urban Planning</em>, <em>104</em>(2), 157-170.</p>
<p>Clover, J. and Eriksen, S., 2009. The effects of land tenure change on sustainability: human security and environmental change in southern African savannas. <em>Environmental Science &amp;Policy</em>,<em>12</em>(1),pp.53-70.</p>
<p>Crossman, N. D., Burkhard, B., Nedkov, S., Willemen, L., Petz, K., Palomo, I., &amp; Alkemade, R. (2013). A blueprint for mapping and modeling ecosystem services. <em>Ecosystem Services</em>, <em>4</em>, 4-14.</p>
<p>DeFries, R. S., Rudel, T., Uriarte, M., and Hansen, M. (2010). Deforestation driven by urban population growth and agricultural trade in the twenty-first century. <em>Nature Geoscience</em>, <em>3</em>(3), 178-181.</p>
<p>Garg, S. (2017). Impact of Overpopulation on Land Use Pattern. In&nbsp;<em>Environmental Issues Surrounding Human Overpopulation</em>&nbsp;(pp. 137-154). IGI Global.</p>
<p>Geist, H. J., &amp; Lambin, E. F. (2002). Proximate Causes and Underlying Driving Forces of Tropical Deforestation Tropical forests are disappearing as the result of many pressures, both local and regional, acting in various combinations in different geographical locations. <em>BioScience</em>,<em>52</em>(2),143-150.</p>
<p>Grau, H. R., Gasparri, N. I., and T MITCHELL, A. I. D. E. (2005). Agriculture expansion and deforestation in seasonally dry forests of north-west Argentina. <em>Environmental Conservation</em>, <em>32</em>(2), 140.</p>
<p>Hassan, M., Smith, A., Walker, K., Rahman, M., &amp; Southworth, J. (2018). Rohingya Refugee Crisis and Forest Cover Change in Teknaf, Bangladesh.&nbsp;<em>Remote Sensing</em>,&nbsp;<em>10</em>(5), 689.</p>
<p>Kajembe, G. C., &amp; Luoga, E. J. (1996). Socio-Economic Aspects of Tree Farming in Njombe District. Consultancy Report to the Natural Resource Conservation and Land-Use Management Project.&nbsp;<em>FORCONSULT, Faculty of Forestry, Sokoine University of Agriculture, Morogoro</em>.</p>
<p>Ke, X., van Vliet, J., Zhou, T., Verburg, P. H., Zheng, W., &amp; Liu, X. (2018). Direct and indirect loss of natural habitat due to built-up area expansion: A model-based analysis for the city of Wuhan, China. Land Use Policy, 74, 231-239.</p>
<p>Kikula, I. S. (1997).&nbsp;<em>Policy implications on environment: the case of villagisation in Tanzania</em>. Nordic Africa Institute.</p>
<p>Kozak, J., Ziółkowska, E., Vogt, P., Dobosz, M., Kaim, D., Kolecka, N., &amp; Ostafin, K. (2018). Forest-cover increase does not trigger forest-fragmentation decrease: Case Study from the Polish Carpathians. Sustainability, 10(5), 1472.</p>
<p>Lambin, E.F., Turner, B.L., Geist, H.J., Agbola, S.B., Angelsen, A., Bruce, J.W., Coomes, O.T., Dirzo, R., Fischer, G., Folke, C. and George, P., (2001). The causes of land-use and land-cover change: moving beyond the myths. <em>Global environmental change</em>, <em>11</em>(4), pp.261-269.</p>
<p>Lataa, K., Misraa, A. K., &amp; Shuklab, J. B. (2018). Modeling the effect of deforestation caused by human population pressure on wildlife species.&nbsp;<em>NONLINEAR ANALYSIS-MODELLING AND CONTROL</em>,&nbsp;<em>23</em>(3), 303-320.</p>
<p>Lupo, F., Linderman, M., Vanacker, V., Bartholome, E., &amp; Lambin, E. F. (2007). Categorization of land‐cover change processes based on phenological indicators extracted from time series of vegetation index data. <em>International Journal of Remote Sensing</em>, <em>28</em>(11), 2469-2483.</p>
<p>Lyaruu, H. V. (2002), Plant Biodiversity Component of the Land Use Change, Impacts and Dynamics Project, Mt. Kilimanjaro, Tanzania. 43pp.</p>
<p>Malugu, I. O (2007). Resource-use Conflicts and Management Challenges for Pugu and Kazimzumbwi Forest Reserves in Kisarawe and Ilala Districts Tanzania. Disc. Innov., Vol. 19; 149-174.</p>
<p>Mbonile, M. J., Misana, S., &amp; Sokoni, C. (2017). Land use change patterns and root causes of land use change on the southern slopes of Mount Kilimanjaro, Tanzania.</p>
<p>Mdemu, M., Kashaigili, J. J., Lupala, J., Levira, P., Liwenga, E., Nduganda, A. and Mwakapuja, F. (2012). <em>Dynamics of land use and land cover changes in the Pugu and Kazimzumbwi Forest Reserves</em>. Proceedings of the first Climate Change Impacts, Mitigation and Adaptation Programme Scientific Conference. 25pp.</p>
<p>Melendez-Pastor, I., Hernández, E. I., Navarro-Pedreño, J., &amp; Gómez, I. (2014). Socioeconomic factors influencing land cover changes in rural areas: The case of the Sierra de Albarracín (Spain). <em>Applied Geography</em>, <em>52</em>, 34-45.</p>
<p>Mondal, M. S. H. (2017). Population an land cover dinamics of Sundarbans impact zone is Bangladesh.&nbsp;<em>Acta Geographica Debrecina Landscape &amp; Environment</em>,&nbsp;<em>11</em>(1), 1-13.</p>
<p>Mondal, M., &amp; Sanaul, H. (2019). The implications of population growth and climate change on sustainable development in Bangladesh.&nbsp;<em>Jàmbá: Journal of Disaster Risk Studies</em>,&nbsp;<em>11</em>(1), 1-10.</p>
<p>Nagendra, H., Munroe, D. K., &amp; Southworth, J. (2004). From pattern to process: landscape fragmentation and the analysis of land use/land cover change. <em>Agriculture, Ecosystems &amp; Environment</em>,<em>101</em>(2),111-115.</p>
<p>Noe, C. (2003), <em>The Dynamic of Land Use Changes and their Impacts on the Wildlife</em> <em>Corridor Between Mount Kilimanjaro and Amboseli National Park, Tanzania. </em>LUCID Report No.31 International Livestock Research Institute, Nairobi, Kenya.</p>
<p>Nzunda, E. F. (2011). Sprouting, succession and tree species diversity in a South African coastal dune forest.&nbsp;<em>Journal of Tropical Ecology</em>,&nbsp;<em>27</em>(2), 195-203.</p>
<p>Nzunda, N.G., Munishi, P.K.T., Soka, G.E. and Monjare, J.F. (2013). Influence of socioeconomic factors on land use and vegetation cover changes in and around Kagoma forest reserve in Tanzania. <em>Ethiopian Journal of Environmental Studies and Management, 6(5), 480 – 488</em>.</p>
<p>Ohri, A. and Poonam (2006). Urban sprawl mapping and land use change detection using remote sensing and GIS. <em>International Journal of Remote Sensing and GIS</em>, <em>1</em>(1), 12-25.</p>
<p>Olson, J.M.; Misana, S.; Campbell, D.J.; Mbonile, M.; Mugisha, S. (2004). The spatial patterns and root causes of land use change in East Africa. LUCID Working Paper, no. 47. Nairobi (Kenya): ILRI</p>
<p>Place, F. (2009). Land tenure and agricultural productivity in Africa: A comparative analysis of the economics literature and recent policy strategies and reforms. <em>World Development</em>, <em>37</em>(8),1326-1336.</p>
<p>Tekalign, M., Flasse, C., Frankl, A., Van Rompaey, A., Poesen, J., Nyssen, J., &amp; Muys, B. (2018). Forest cover loss and recovery in an East African remnant forest area: Understanding its context and drivers for conservation and sustainable ecosystem service provision. Applied geography, 98, 133-142.</p>
<p>Temgoua, L. F., Allaissem, B., Tchamba, M., Saradoum, G., Osée, M. M., &amp; Solefack, M. C. M. (2018). Spatio-Temporal Dynamic of Land Use and Land Cover in the Classified Forest of Djoli-Kera, South-Eastern, Chad.&nbsp;<em>Open Journal of Forestry</em>,&nbsp;<em>8</em>(03), 283.</p>
<p>Tiffen, M. (2003), Transition in Sub-Saharan Africa: Agriculture, Urbanization and Income growth. <em>World Development </em>31, 1343 – 1366.</p>
<p>Twongyirwe, R., Bithell, M., &amp; Richards, K. S. (2018). Revisiting the drivers of deforestation in the tropics: Insights from local and key informant perceptions in western Uganda. Journal of Rural Studies, 63, 105-119.</p>
<p>Vanacker, V. (2002), Geormophic Response to Human-Induced Environmental Change in Tropical Mountains Areas. The Austo Ecuatoriano as a Case Study. Doctoral thesis, Katholic University of Leuven. pp. 111-119.</p>
<p>Weber, C., &amp; Puissant, A. (2003). Urbanization pressure and modeling of urban growth: example of the Tunis Metropolitan Area.&nbsp;<em>Remote sensing of environment</em>,&nbsp;<em>86</em>(3), 341-352.</p>
<p>World Bank. (2018).&nbsp;<em>World Development Report: Learning to Realize Education's Promise.</em></p>
<p>Zeleke, G., &amp; Hurni, H. (2001). Implications of land use and land cover dynamics for mountain resource degradation in the Northwestern Ethiopian highlands. <em>Mountain research and development</em>, <em>21</em>(2), 184-191.</p>




How to Cite

Sembosi, S. J. (2019). Implication of Socio-economic Factors on Land Use and Forest Cover Changes in and Around Magamba Nature Reserve in Tanzania: Perception of Local Stakeholders. Advanced Journal of Social Science, 5(1), 108-117.



Survey Article