Multi-objective Optimization to Increase Nusselt Number and Reduce Friction Coefficient of Water/Carbon Nanotubes via NSGA II using Response Surface Methodology


  • Amin Moslemi Petrudi Department of Mechanical Engineering, Tehran University
  • Pourya Fathi Department of Mechanical Engineering, Tehran University
  • Masoud Rahmani Department of Mechanical Engineering, Tehran University



Heat transfer science is one of the most important and most applied engineering sciences, with the importance of energy management and energy conservation being doubled. Because of their properties, nanofluids have been widely used in various industries, making them particularly important to study. In this paper, the Nusselt number and coefficient of friction with volume fraction ranging from 0 to 0.1 at approximately Reynolds numbers of 200 to 5000 are studied experimentally. Higher thermal conductivity, better stability, lower pressure drop was observed using nanoparticles of solid particles. NSGA II algorithm was used to maximize Nusselt number and minimum friction coefficient by changing temperature and volume fraction of nanoparticles. To obtain Nusselt number and friction coefficient based on the temperature and volume fraction of the nanoparticles, the experimental data response surface methodology was used and with increasing Reynolds number, the Nusselt number increased and the friction coefficient decreased. In order to evaluate the objective functions in the optimization, the response surface methodology is attached to the optimization algorithm. At the end, the Pareto Front and its corresponding optimal points are presented.


Nusselt number; Multi-objective optimization; Nanofluids; Friction coefficient; Pareto front


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Research Article

How to Cite

A. Moslemi Petrudi, P. Fathi, and M. Rahmani, “Multi-objective Optimization to Increase Nusselt Number and Reduce Friction Coefficient of Water/Carbon Nanotubes via NSGA II using Response Surface Methodology”, J. Mod. Sim. Mater., vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 1-14, Mar. 2020.