Journal of Modern Materials https://journals.aijr.in/index.php/jmm <p align="justify"><a title="Click for Journal homepage" href="https://doi.org/10.21467/jmm" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><img style="float: right; padding-left: 15px; padding-right: 5px;" src="/public/site/images/aabahishti/JMM_cover_page.jpg" alt="JMM"></a> Journal of Modern Materials aims to enhance international exchange of scientific research activities related to all aspects of Material Science. It is an open access, peer-reviewed, materials research journal publishing quality research papers by AIJR Publisher.<br>Journal of modern materials is registered with CrossRef with doi: 10.21467/jmm&nbsp;and ISSN of this journal is &nbsp;2456-4834 [online].</p> AIJR Publisher en-US Journal of Modern Materials 2456-4834 <div id="copyrightNotice">Author(s) retains full copyright of their article and grants non-exclusive publishing right to <strong>Journal of Modern Materials</strong> and its publisher “<a title="AIJR Publisher homepage" href="https://www.aijr.in/" target="_blank">AIJR</a> (India)”. Author(s) can archive pre-print, post-print and published version/PDF to any open access, institutional repository, social media or personal website provided that Published source must be acknowledged with citation and link to publisher version.<br>Click <a title="Copyright Policy" href="https://www.aijr.in/about/policies/copyright/" target="_blank">here</a> for more information on Copyright policy<br>Click <a title="Licensing Policy" href="/index.php/jmm/about#licensing">here</a> for more information on Licensing policy</div> Effect of Concentration Variation on Optical and Structural Properties of TiO2 Thin Films https://journals.aijr.in/index.php/jmm/article/view/2372 <p>Concentrations in weight percent (5- 25 wt %) of TiO<sub>2</sub> films used to optimize the film formation. The TiO<sub>2 </sub>films on glass substrates successfully obtained by spin-coating process using TiO<sub>2 </sub>nanopowder as precursor. Ultraviolet-Visible (UV-Vis), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) equipped with Electron Diffraction X-ray (EDX) and X-ray Diffractometer (XRD) techniques used to characterize the films. The result of electron transport material (TiO<sub>2</sub>) showed that film prepared from 15 wt % of TiO<sub>2</sub> solution and annealed at 450 &nbsp;has highest transmittance at visible light region with indirect optical band gap of 3.24 eV which corresponds to wavelength of 382 nm whereas 20 wt % has indirect band gap of 2.99 nm equivalent to 414.7 nm . The chemical analysis from Electron Diffraction Spectroscopy (EDS) of the material shows titanium and oxygen present at L and K-shells, respectively. The sample crystallized with preferred orientation at (101) from XRD analysis.</p> Sabastine Chinedu Ezike Copyright (c) 2020 Sabastine Chinedu Ezike (Author) 2020-03-05 2020-03-05 7 1 1 6 10.21467/jmm.7.1.1-6 Compressive and Flexural Strengths of Concrete Containing Ground Palm Kernel Shells as Partial Replacement of Cement https://journals.aijr.in/index.php/jmm/article/view/2397 <p>This study explore the possibility of using waste ground palm kernel (GPK) shells as partial replacement of cement in concrete using mechanical destructive method has been studied. The palm kernel shells were in two forms: the GPK ordinary shells and shells subjected to incomplete combustion (i.e. the GPK “fuel” shells. In the preparation of the concrete specimens the mix ratio was 1: 2: 4 (cement: sand: stone) by weight and The replacement percentage was 0%, 20%, 30%, 40%, 50% and 60% respectively.&nbsp; Concrete specimen were molded in both cubic and cylindrical form and its impact on the mechanical properties such as workability, compressive strength and flexural strength using destructive test method were studied. The cubic specimen were tested at 7, 28 and 60 days whiles the cylindrical specimen were tested at 7 and 28 days. Results of physical and chemical analyses suggest that GPK “fuel” shells have acceptable cementitious properties whiles GPK ordinary shells does not. Generally, the compressive and flexural strengths of concrete containing GPK shells decrease as the replacement percentage increases. However, the values of these properties increase as the period of curing increases. The optimum level of GPK shells replacement is 20% for the ordinary shells and 30% for the “fuel” shells considering compressive strength at 28 days for the cubic samples. For the flexural strength on the cylindrical specimen, up to 60% replacement of cement by GPK shells cured for 28 days has acceptable flexural strength. In spite of the findings that the GPK ordinary shells do not have cementitious properties, the mechanical properties on such concretes can be used in low strength constructions as pavements, walk ways and non structural domestic work at a lower cost than using cement.</p> Esau Abekah Armah Hubert Azoda Koffi Josef K Ametefe Amuzu Copyright (c) 2020 Esau Abekah Armah, Hubert Azoda Koffi, Josef K Ametefe Amuzu (Author) 2020-05-03 2020-05-03 7 1 7 16 10.21467/jmm.7.1.7-16 Effect of Gamma- Irradiation on Structure, Morphology and Thermal Properties of Novel Polyamide Based Thermoset Obtained by Double Cycloaddition https://journals.aijr.in/index.php/jmm/article/view/2584 <p>Cycloaddition reactions gained prominence in macromolecular chemistry for generating macromolecules because of high yields of these reactions, which is a key tool that drives polyaddition reactions. Cycloaddition reaction plays major role in extension of polymerisation or in other words high conversions of monomers to macromolecules of high molecular weights. Until the late 1990s, the major studies regarding cycloadditions in novel polymer synthesis were related to polyaddition reactions. Since then in the field of polymer synthesis the affirmative strengths of these cycloaddition reactions have been exhibited in multi fold polymer design and headway material architecture. Future demand exists in unlatching the capacity of these novel synthetic routes for advanced applications in catalysis, separation, optoelectronics, and analytical media. Thus, we have developed an able and productive synthetic podium for the preparation of a new class of polyimide based on the double 1, 3-dipolar cycloaddition of thiasydnone with bis-maleimide. This paper reports the effect of gamma irradiation on the changes in physico-chemical properties of the polyamide based thermoset synthesised by double cycloaddition approach. The thermoset synthesized by this exclusive approach were irradiated with gamma doses in the range 10- 300 kGy. The substantial effect of gamma radiation and the structural modifications induced on the thermoset have been studied as a function of dose using different characterization techniques such as Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry- thermo gravimetric analysis (DSC-TGA), Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FESEM) and UV-Vis Spectroscopy.</p> Balakrishna Kalluraya Kaushik B R H M Somashekarappa Copyright (c) 2020 Balakrishna Kalluraya, Kaushik B R, H M Somashekarappa (Author) 2020-07-05 2020-07-05 7 1 17 25 10.21467/jmm.7.1.17-25 Fabrication and Investigation of Mechanical Properties of SiC Particulate Reinforced AA5052 Metal Matrix Composite https://journals.aijr.in/index.php/jmm/article/view/2602 <p class="Abstract">In this present research particulate reinforced aluminium metal matrix composite is developed by using sand mould and liquid stir casting processing route in which AA5052 reinforced with 5 wt. % SiC particulates of 63µm particle size. The density, porosity, micro-hardness, and compressive strength of SiC particulate reinforced AA5052 MMC were investigated and compared these properties with similar properties of unreinforced AA5052. The microstructure of the developed composite was also analysed by using optical microscopy, SEM, and XRD. Developed particulate reinforced Al metal matrix composite gives improved hardness and compressive strength as compared to the unreinforced AA5052. The addition of 5 wt. % SiC particulates increases the density of AA5052.</p> Murlidhar Patel Sushanta Kumar Sahu Mukesh Kumar Singh Copyright (c) 2020 Murlidhar Patel, Sushanta Kumar Sahu, Mukesh Kumar Singh (Author) 2020-07-06 2020-07-06 7 1 26 36 10.21467/jmm.7.1.26-36 Removal of Heavy Metals from Stormwater Using Porous Concrete Pavement https://journals.aijr.in/index.php/jmm/article/view/2706 <p class="Abstract">This study aimed to investigate the heavy metals, i.e. Cu, Pb, Ni, and Zn removal efficiency from stormwater runoff of a porous concrete pavement (PCP). A model of PCP was designed with the porosity and co-efficient of permeability of the pavement were 27.2% and 1.83 cm/sec, respectively. Artificial stormwater containing heavy metals are passed through the pavement at a constant rainfall rate to mimic the stormwater rainfall-runoff condition. The artificial stormwater infiltrated through the pavement were then collected at two different pavement layers at different time instances. From the experimental investigations, it is observed that Cu, Pb, Ni and Zn concentrations are significantly reduced in the treated stormwater. At the first collection point which is located below the sub-base layer and coarse sand layer of the pavement, the concentrations of Cu, Pb and Zn reduced 56%, 67% and 93% respectively compared to their initial concentration, Ni concentration reduced only 20%. At the second collection point which is located below the coarse and fine sand layers beneath the pavement, the concentrations of Cu, Pb, Zn, and Ni are reduced 92%, 89%, 100%, 100%, respectively.</p> Kalimur Rahman Saurav Barua Md. Shibly Anwar Md. Zakir Hasan Saiful Islam Copyright (c) 2020 Kalimur Rahman, Saurav Barua, Md. Shibly Anwar, Md. Zakir Hasan, Saiful Islam (Author) 2020-07-09 2020-07-09 7 1 37 44 10.21467/jmm.7.1.37-44