Journal of Modern Materials <p align="justify"><a title="Click for Journal homepage" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><img style="float: right; padding-left: 15px; padding-right: 5px;" src="/public/site/images/aabahishti/JMM_cover_page.jpg" alt="JMM"></a> Journal of Modern Materials aims to enhance international exchange of scientific research activities related to all aspects of Material Science. It is an open access, peer-reviewed, materials research journal publishing quality research papers by AIJR Publisher.<br>Journal of modern materials is registered with CrossRef with doi: 10.21467/jmm&nbsp;and ISSN of this journal is &nbsp;2456-4834 [online].</p> AIJR Publisher en-US Journal of Modern Materials 2456-4834 <div id="copyrightNotice">Author(s) retains full copyright of their article and grants non-exclusive publishing right to <strong>Journal of Modern Materials</strong> and its publisher “<a title="AIJR Publisher homepage" href="" target="_blank">AIJR</a> (India)”. Author(s) can archive pre-print, post-print and published version/PDF to any open access, institutional repository, social media or personal website provided that Published source must be acknowledged with citation and link to publisher version.<br>Click <a title="Copyright Policy" href="" target="_blank">here</a> for more information on Copyright policy<br>Click <a title="Licensing Policy" href="/index.php/jmm/about#licensing">here</a> for more information on Licensing policy</div> Investigating the Utilization of Ground Palm Kernel Shells for Partial Replacement of Cement in Concrete Using Nondestructive Method <p>The objective of this research is to investigate the utilization of palm kernel shells in ground form (GPK) for partial replacement of ordinary Portland cement (OPC) in concrete by investigating its optimal strength using nondestructive ultrasonic pulse velocity method for both cubic and cylindrical concrete test specimen. In all a total of 135 cubes and 66 cylinders of concrete were prepared. The dimension of the cubic concrete specimens was 150 × 150 × 150 mm and that of the cylindrical specimens were 110 mm and 500 mm diameter and length respectively. The mix design of the GPK shells used as a partial replacement for OPC ranged between 0% and 50% by weight of cement using mix ratio of 1:2:4 with water to cement ratio of 0.8. The concrete specimens were test at curing periods of 7 days, 28 days and 60 days for the cubes and 7 days and 28 days for the cylinders. &nbsp;Based on the results and the analysis done, it was generally observed in all cases that, as the mix ratio is increased, the ultrasonic pulse velocity, modulus of elasticity and the density decreased and as the curing period increased, these values increased across all the mix ratios. The ultrasonic pulse velocity and the density of the specimens shows that concretes containing GPK “fuel” shells has higher values than those containing GPK ordinary shells. Generally, the density, ultrasonic pulse velocity and the modulus of elasticity of concrete containing GPK shells decrease as the replacement percentage increase.</p> Esau Abekah Armah Hubert Azoda Koffi Bright J. A. Y Sogbey Josef K. Ametefe Amuzu ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-07-13 2019-07-13 6 1 1 12 10.21467/jmm.6.1.1-12 Pulsed Laser Annealing Effect on Optical and Structural Properties of ZnS/ZnSe Heterostructures <p>Studies of pulsed laser annealing (PLA) on semiconductor thin films were performed to examine changes of the optical and structural parameters due to the laser heat. Thin films of ZnS/ZnSe were deposited on quartz substrates at a pressure of 8.2*10<sup>-6&nbsp;</sup>mbar using PVD technique. These thin films were annealed at different laser powers using CO<sub>2</sub> pulsed laser. Transmission and reflection spectra were recorded before and after the annealing process. A decrease in the transmission and reflection spectra after annealing is observed. The absorption coefficient, refractive index, damping coefficient and dielectric constant were calculated before and after the annealing process. Changes in the optical parameters are found after the annealing process. The energy band gaps of ZnS and ZnSe have been determined. Upon annealing, an increase in the absorption coefficient is observed which is due to an improvement in the granular nanostructure of the ZnS/ZnSe thin films. XRD patterns of the prepared samples were obtained before and after the annealing procedure and revealed an enhancement in the crystallite structure upon annealing.</p> Haidar Howari ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-10-29 2019-10-29 6 1 23 29 10.21467/jmm.6.1.23-29 Influence of Strontium on the Physical, Mechanical and In-Vitro Bioactivity of Glass Ionomer Cements <p>In this work, we investigated the effects of strontium incorporation in the glass phase of glass ionomer cements (GIC). Three different glass compositions were synthesized with 0, 5, and 10 mol% of SrO addition. GICs were prepared by the addition of 50 wt% polyacrylic acid (PAA) at powder to liquid ratio of 1:1.5. Initial characterization on the cement series was to study their rheological behavior. Cements represented working times between 50-64 seconds and setting times of 356-452 seconds. Rheological results indicated that the addition of strontium decreases the working and setting times of the cements. To analyze the mechanical properties, compressive and flexural strength studies were performed after 1, 10, and 30 days incubation in simulated body fluid (SBF). The compressive strength of the cements increased as a function of incubation time, with the strontium containing compositions showing the highest strength at 34 megapascal <strong>(</strong>MPa) and after 30 days of incubation. Biaxial flexural strength of the cements was not significantly affected by the composition and maturation time and ranged between 13.4 to 16.3 MPa. <em>In-vitro</em> bioactivity of the cements was analyzed using SBF trials and after 1, 10, and 30 days incubation periods. Strontium containing cements, showed higher solubility with higher amounts of calcium phosphate surface depositions only after 10 days incubation. The elemental identifications of the surface depositions indicated high amounts of Ca, P and Zn are present on the surface of SBF incubated samples.</p> Yiyu Li ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-12-31 2019-12-31 6 1 30 39 10.21467/jmm.6.1.30-39 Multiple Beneficial Effects of Using Biochar (as a Great Organic Material) on Tolerance and Productivity of Rice under Abiotic Stress <p>Rice as a sensitive crop that usually affected by many harmful environmental stresses. Numerous policies are followed to increase plant growth-tolerance under abiotic-stresses in various plant species. The attempts to improve crop tolerance against abiotic stresses via common breeding method are needed to follow a long-term, and may also be non-affordable, these are due to the existing genetic variability of the plant. Current review analysis existing knowledge gaps, challenges, and opportunities in the biochar application as a beneficial and pyrogenic-C, material. Consequently, a review of the literature with a high focusing on the multiple beneficial effects of using biochar on tolerance and productivity of rice in abiotic stresses is needed. This review provides a summary of those efforts that would be beneficial in reducing inconvenienced abiotic-stresses, and also how using biochar could increase rice tolerance and production through the supporting of plant growth regulator's roles. Accordantly, present review findings showed that biochar is a great amendment and consisting of principally organic rich-C matter, which has multiple benefits on improving soil physicochemical and biological properties as well as increasing rice tolerance and its productivity through enhancing plant hormones roles under abiotic stressed conditions (heat/cold temperature, drought, salinity, heavy metal, and climate change stresses). Nevertheless, it is anticipated that further researches on the benefits of biochar will increase the comprehension of interactions between biochar and plant growth hormones, to accelerate our attempts for improving rice tolerance and productivity, under abiotic-stress conditions.</p> Gulaqa Anwari Jin Feng Abdourazak Alio Moussa ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-12-31 2019-12-31 6 1 40 51 10.21467/jmm.6.1.40-51 Analysis of Solar PV Energy Systems for Rural Villages of Nekemte Area, Oromiya Region, Ethiopia <p>Currently, the main energy source used in rural areas of Ethiopia for cooking and heating is unprocessed biomass and fossil fuel such as kerosene, paraffin and petrol/diesel. These energy sources generate large volume of indoor air pollution that increases the risk of chronic diseases. Solar energy is the most practical and economical way of bringing power to poor and remote communities in the long-term and Ethiopia is strategically located in a maximum sun shines hours zone. This study assessed the potential of a solar PV power system to provide the required electricity for a rural community near Nekemte city in Oromiya regions of Ethiopia. The sunshine hour’s data was obtained from the National Meteorological Service Agency (NMA). Results showed an abundant (average) solar energy potential of 5.52 KWh/m2/day. Electric load for a single household, school and clinic was estimated at 313, 2064 and 2040 Wh/day respectively. The cost of energy from solar PV system was estimated at about $1.2/kWh, $0.92/kWh and $0.87/KWh for household, school and clinic respectively. The findings encourage the use of the PV systems to electrify the remote sites of Ethiopia considering it long-term benefits and less cost of installation compared to national grid extension to the remote sites.</p> Tegenu Argaw Woldegiyorgis ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-09-28 2019-09-28 6 1 13 22 10.21467/jmm.6.1.13-22