Journal of Modern Materials 2019-12-08T15:03:40+00:00 J. Modern Mater. [AIJR] Open Journal Systems <p align="justify"><a title="Click for Journal homepage" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><img style="float: right; padding-left: 15px; padding-right: 5px;" src="/public/site/images/aabahishti/JMM_cover_page.jpg" alt="JMM"></a> Journal of Modern Materials aims to enhance international exchange of scientific research activities related to all aspects of Material Science. It is an open access, peer-reviewed, materials research journal publishing quality research papers by AIJR Publisher.<br>Journal of modern materials is registered with CrossRef with doi: 10.21467/jmm&nbsp;and ISSN of this journal is &nbsp;2456-4834 [online].</p> Investigating the Utilization of Ground Palm Kernel Shells for Partial Replacement of Cement in Concrete Using Nondestructive Method 2019-12-08T15:03:40+00:00 Esau Abekah Armah Hubert Azoda Koffi Bright J. A. Y Sogbey Josef K. Ametefe Amuzu <p>The objective of this research is to investigate the utilization of palm kernel shells in ground form (GPK) for partial replacement of ordinary Portland cement (OPC) in concrete by investigating its optimal strength using nondestructive ultrasonic pulse velocity method for both cubic and cylindrical concrete test specimen. In all a total of 135 cubes and 66 cylinders of concrete were prepared. The dimension of the cubic concrete specimens was 150 × 150 × 150 mm and that of the cylindrical specimens were 110 mm and 500 mm diameter and length respectively. The mix design of the GPK shells used as a partial replacement for OPC ranged between 0% and 50% by weight of cement using mix ratio of 1:2:4 with water to cement ratio of 0.8. The concrete specimens were test at curing periods of 7 days, 28 days and 60 days for the cubes and 7 days and 28 days for the cylinders. &nbsp;Based on the results and the analysis done, it was generally observed in all cases that, as the mix ratio is increased, the ultrasonic pulse velocity, modulus of elasticity and the density decreased and as the curing period increased, these values increased across all the mix ratios. The ultrasonic pulse velocity and the density of the specimens shows that concretes containing GPK “fuel” shells has higher values than those containing GPK ordinary shells. Generally, the density, ultrasonic pulse velocity and the modulus of elasticity of concrete containing GPK shells decrease as the replacement percentage increase.</p> 2019-07-13T06:38:05+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Pulsed Laser Annealing Effect on Optical and Structural Properties of ZnS/ZnSe Heterostructures 2019-12-08T15:03:40+00:00 Haidar Howari <p>Studies of pulsed laser annealing (PLA) on semiconductor thin films were performed to examine changes of the optical and structural parameters due to the laser heat. Thin films of ZnS/ZnSe were deposited on quartz substrates at a pressure of 8.2*10<sup>-6&nbsp;</sup>mbar using PVD technique. These thin films were annealed at different laser powers using CO<sub>2</sub> pulsed laser. Transmission and reflection spectra were recorded before and after the annealing process. A decrease in the transmission and reflection spectra after annealing is observed. The absorption coefficient, refractive index, damping coefficient and dielectric constant were calculated before and after the annealing process. Changes in the optical parameters are found after the annealing process. The energy band gaps of ZnS and ZnSe have been determined. Upon annealing, an increase in the absorption coefficient is observed which is due to an improvement in the granular nanostructure of the ZnS/ZnSe thin films. XRD patterns of the prepared samples were obtained before and after the annealing procedure and revealed an enhancement in the crystallite structure upon annealing.</p> 2019-10-29T05:49:19+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Analysis of Solar PV Energy Systems for Rural Villages of Nekemte Area, Oromiya Region, Ethiopia 2019-12-08T15:03:40+00:00 Tegenu Argaw Woldegiyorgis <p>Currently, the main energy source used in rural areas of Ethiopia for cooking and heating is unprocessed biomass and fossil fuel such as kerosene, paraffin and petrol/diesel. These energy sources generate large volume of indoor air pollution that increases the risk of chronic diseases. Solar energy is the most practical and economical way of bringing power to poor and remote communities in the long-term and Ethiopia is strategically located in a maximum sun shines hours zone. This study assessed the potential of a solar PV power system to provide the required electricity for a rural community near Nekemte city in Oromiya regions of Ethiopia. The sunshine hour’s data was obtained from the National Meteorological Service Agency (NMA). Results showed an abundant (average) solar energy potential of 5.52 KWh/m2/day. Electric load for a single household, school and clinic was estimated at 313, 2064 and 2040 Wh/day respectively. The cost of energy from solar PV system was estimated at about $1.2/kWh, $0.92/kWh and $0.87/KWh for household, school and clinic respectively. The findings encourage the use of the PV systems to electrify the remote sites of Ethiopia considering it long-term benefits and less cost of installation compared to national grid extension to the remote sites.</p> 2019-09-28T04:47:14+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##