Epitaxial Lattice Matching and the Growth Techniques of Compound Semiconductors for their Potential Photovoltaic Applications

  • Shagufta Bano Husain Department of Physics, Al-Falah University, Faridabad, Haryana
  • Maruph Hasan Department of Physics, Al-Falah University, Faridabad, Haryana

Abstract

This paper presents the recent advances in semiconductor alloys for photovoltaic applications. The two main growth techniques involved in these compounds are metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) and molecular beam epitaxy (MBE), that has also been discussed. With these techniques, hetero-structures can be grown with a high efficiency. A combination of more than one semiconductor like GaAs, InGaAs and CuInGaAs increases the range of their electrical and optical properties. A large range of direct band gap, high optical absorption and emission coefficients make these materials optimally suitable for converting the light to electrical energy. Their electronic structures reveal that they are highly suitable for photovoltaic applications also because they exhibit spin orbit resonance and metal/semiconductor transitions. The dissociation energy has also been discussed in reference to the increased stability of these compounds.

Keywords: Compound semiconductors, hetero-junctions, lattice mismatching, photovoltaic application, variable band gap

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

[1]          A. Goetzberger, J. Luther, and G. Willeke, “Solar cells: past, present, future,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells, vol. 74, no. 1–4, pp. 1–11, Oct. 2002.


[2]          K. Ramanathan et al., “Properties of 19.2% efficiency ZnO/CdS/CuInGaSe2 thin-film solar cells,” Prog. Photovoltaics Res. Appl., vol. 11, no. 4, pp. 225–230, Jun. 2003.


[3]          C. M. Fetzer, H. Yoon, R. R. King, D. C. Law, T. D. Isshiki, and N. H. Karam, “1.6/1.1 eV metamorphic GaInP/GaInAs solar cells grown by MOVPE on Ge,” J. Cryst. Growth, vol. 276, no. 1–2, pp. 48–56, Mar. 2005.


[4]          R. W. Birkmire, “Compound polycrystalline solar cells:: Recent progress and Y2 K perspective,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells, vol. 65, no. 1–4, pp. 17–28, Jan. 2001.


[5]          K. Ishida, J. Matsui, T. Kamejima, and I. Sakuma, “X-ray study of AlxGa1−xAs epitaxial layers,” Phys. Status Solidi, vol. 31, no. 1, pp. 255–262, Sep. 1975.


[6]          C. S. Solanki, B. M. Arora, J. Vasi, and M. B. Patil, Solar Photovoltaics. Delhi: Foundation Books, 2013.


[7]          M. W. Wanlass et al., “Lattice-mismatched approaches for high-performance, III-V photovoltaic energy converters,” in Conference Record of the Thirty-first IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference, 2005., pp. 530–535.


[8]          J. Tersoff, “Schottky Barrier Heights and the Continuum of Gap States,” Phys. Rev. Lett., vol. 52, no. 6, pp. 465–468, Feb. 1984.


[9]          K. Emery, D. Myers, and S. Kurtz, “What is the appropriate reference spectrum for characterizing concentrator cells?,” in Conference Record of the Twenty-Ninth IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference, 2002., pp. 840–843.


[10]        J. Poortmans, V. Arkhipov, and Wiley InterScience (Online service), Thin film solar cells : fabrication, characterization and applications. Wiley, 2006.


[11]        R. King et al., “Metamorphic and Lattice-Matched Solar Cells Under Concentration,” in 2006 IEEE 4th World Conference on Photovoltaic Energy Conference, 2006, pp. 760–763.


[12]        D. J. Chadi, “The Problem of Doping in II-VI Semiconductors,” Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci., vol. 24, no. 1, pp. 45–62, Aug. 1994.


[13]        R. Triboulet, “Fundamentals of the CdTe and CdZnTe bulk growth,” Phys. status solidi, vol. 2, no. 5, pp. 1556–1565, Mar. 2005.


[14]        S. B. Trivedi, C.-C. Wang, S. Kutcher, U. Hommerich, and W. Palosz, “Crystal growth technology of binary and ternary II–VI semiconductors for photonic applications,” J. Cryst. Growth, vol. 310, no. 6, pp. 1099–1106, Mar. 2008.


[15]        N. Pinto et al., “Magnetic and electronic transport percolation in epitaxial    Ge  1 – x    Mn x    films,” Phys. Rev. B, vol. 72, no. 16, p. 165203, Oct. 2005.


[16]        P. Sidi, N. Raden, and D. Hartanto, “Solar Cell,” in Solar Cells - Silicon Wafer-Based Technologies, InTech, 2011.


[17]        K. Chen et al., “Direct growth of single-crystalline III–V semiconductors on amorphous substrates,” Nat. Commun., vol. 7, p. 10502, Jan. 2016.


[18]        L. Morresi et al., “Structural, magnetic and electronic transport properties of MnxGe1−x/Ge(0 0 1) films grown by MBE at 350 °C,” Surf. Sci., vol. 601, no. 13, pp. 2632–2635, Jul. 2007.


[19]        L. Morresi et al., “Formation of Mn5Ge3 nanoclusters in highly diluted MnxGe1−x alloys,” Mater. Sci. Semicond. Process., vol. 9, no. 4–5, pp. 836–840, Aug. 2006.


[20]        L. Cuadra, A. Martı́, and A. Luque, “Type II broken band heterostructure quantum dot to obtain a material for the intermediate band solar cell,” Phys. E Low-dimensional Syst. Nanostructures, vol. 14, no. 1–2, pp. 162–165, Apr. 2002.


[21]        T. Trupke, M. A. Green, and P. Würfel, “Improving solar cell efficiencies by up-conversion of sub-band-gap light,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 92, no. 7, pp. 4117–4122, Oct. 2002.


[22]        S. Niu et al., “Brief Review of Epitaxy and Emission Properties of GaSb and Related Semiconductors,” Crystals, vol. 7, no. 11, p. 337, Nov. 2017.


[23]        J. C. Brice and P. Rudolph, “Crystal Growth,” in Ullmann’s Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry, Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, 2007.


[24]        A. C. Jones and M. L. Hitchman, “Chapter 1. Overview of Chemical Vapour Deposition,” in Chemical Vapour Deposition, A. C. Jones and M. L. Hitchman, Eds. Cambridge: Royal Society of Chemistry, 2008, pp. 1–36.


[25]        V.-M. Airaksinen, “Chapter 7 Epitaxial layer characterization and metrology,” Semicond. Semimetals, vol. 72, pp. 225–276, Jan. 2001.


[26]        S. M. Sze and K. K. Ng, Physics of semiconductor devices. Wiley-Interscience, 2007.


[27]        “Chemical Vapor Deposition,” Nanoscience & Nanotechnology. [Online]. Available: https://sites.google.com/site/nanomodern/Home/CNT/syncnt/cvd. [Accessed: 03-Jun-2018].


[28]        G. H. Olsen and T. J. Zamerowski, “Double-barrel III–V compound vapor-phase epitaxy systems,” Microelectron. Reliab., vol. 24, no. 3, p. 594, Jan. 1984.


[29]        W. Roth, H. Kräutle, A. Krings, and H. Beneking, “Laser Stimulated Growth of Epitaxial Gaas,” MRS Proc., vol. 17, p. 193, Jan. 1982.


[30]        L. Morresi, “Molecular Beam Epitaxy (MBE),” in Silicon Based Thin Film Solar Cells, R. Murri, Ed. Bentham Science Publishers, 2013, pp. 81–107.


[31]        H. Ibach and H. (Hans) Lüth, Solid-State Physics : an Introduction to Principles of Materials Science. Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 2003.


[32]        M. A. Herman and H. Sitter, Molecular Beam Epitaxy, vol. 7. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 1989.


[33]        M. B. Panish and H. Temkin, “GaInAsP/InP heterostructure lasers emitting at 1.5 μm and grown by gas source molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 44, no. 8, pp. 785–787, Apr. 1984.

Published
2018-06-04
How to Cite
[1]
S. Husain and M. Hasan, “Epitaxial Lattice Matching and the Growth Techniques of Compound Semiconductors for their Potential Photovoltaic Applications”, J. Modern Mater., vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 34-42, Jun. 2018.