Effect of Electron Beam Irradiation on Polymers

  • Pradeep Singh Analytical Technology, SABIC Research & Technology Pvt. Ltd
  • B R Venugopal SABIC Research and Technology Pvt. Ltd.
  • D R Nandini SABIC Research and Technology Pvt. Ltd.


Electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) in combination with transmission electron microscopy (TEM) is widely used for chemical state analysis of variety of chemical compounds. High beam sensitivity of substances like polymers hinders the possibility of exploring in-depth analysis provided through the high spatially resolved EELS spectroscopy. In this study, the electron beam irradiation damage on polymers were analyzed with varying dose of electron beams. The stability of the polymers under electron beam exposure depends on the chemical structure on the polymers. In this study the polymers with and without phenyl groups namely Polycarbonate, Polyethylene terephthalate, Polystyrene, Styrene Maleic Anhydride and Polymethylmethacrylate are selected for the comparative degradation study. Effect of varying the electron dose on the stability of polymers were monitored by recording the low-loss EELS spectrum in π to π* transition and (π+σ) to (π+σ)* transition region.

Keywords: EELS, polymer spectroscopy, electron beam irradiation, polymer microscopy


Download data is not yet available.


[1]       M. R. Libera, M. M. Disko, (2004), Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy of Polymers, in Transmission Electron Energy Loss Spectrometry in Materials Science and The EELS Atlas, Second Edition (ed C. C. Ahn), Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, FRG. View

[2]       S. Horiuchi, D. Yin, T. Ougizawa,, Nanoscale analysis of polymer interfaces by energy-filtering transmission electron microscopy, Macromolecular Chemistry and Physics, 2005, 206, 7, 725. View

[3]       S. Krause , Polymer Chemistry: An Introduction, 3rd Edition (Stevens, Malcolm P.), J. Chem. Educ., 2000, 77, 1, 35. View

[4]       G. B. Butler Polymers: Structure and bulk properties (Meares, Patrick), J. Chem. Educ., 1966, 43, 7, 396. View

[5]       M. R. Libera, R. F. Egerton, Advances in the Transmission Electron Microscopy of Polymers, Polymer Reviews, 2010, 50, 3, 321. View

[6]       R. F. Egerton, Electron Energy-Loss Spectroscopy in the Electron Microscope, Springer US, 2011. View

[7]       W. M. Stobbs, A. J. Bourdillon, Current applications of electron energy loss spectroscopy, Ultramicroscopy, 1982, 9, 3, 303. View

[8]       R. Ramani, C. Ranganathaiah, Degradation of acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene and polycarbonate by UV irradiation, Polymer Degradation and Stability, 2000, 69, 347.

[9]       B. N. Jang, C. A. Wilkie, The thermal degradation of bisphenol A polycarbonate in air, Thermochimica Acta, 2005, 426, 73.

[10]     K. B. Abbbs, Thermal degradation of bisphenol A polycarbonate, Polymer, 1980, 21, 936.  View

[11]     K. Hareesh, Ganesh Sanjeev, 8 MeV Electron Induced Changes in Structural and Thermal Properties of Lexan Polycarbonate, Materials Sciences and Applications, 2011, 2, 1682. View

[12]     B. Jaleha, P. Parvin, N. Sheikh, F. Ziaie, M. Haghshenas, L. Bozorg, Evaluation of physico-chemical properties of electron beam-irradiated polycarbonate film, Radiation Physics and Chemistry, 2007, 76, 1715. View

[13]     Z. Zhu, C. Liu, Y. Sun, J. Liu, Y. Tang, Y. Jin, J. Du, Modification of polyethylene terephthalate under high-energy heavy ion irradiation, Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B, 2002, 191, 723. View

[14]     I.V. Vasiljeva, S.V. Mjakin, A.V. Makarov, A.N. Krasovsky, A.V. Varlamov, Electron beam induced modification of poly(ethylene terephthalate) films, Applied Surface Science, 2006, 252, 8768. View

[15]     S. A. Jabarin, E. A. Lofgren, Thermal Stability of Polyethylene Terephthalate, Polymer engineering and science, 1984, 24,1056. View

[16]     M. Dzieciol,, J. Trzeszczynski, Volatile Products of Poly(ethylene terephthalate) Thermal Degradation in Nitrogen Atmosphere, Journal of Applied Polymer Science, 2000, 77, 1894. View

[17]     G. Burillo, L. Tenorio, E. Bucio, E. Adem, G.P. Lopez, Electron beam irradiation effects on poly(ethylene terephthalate), Radiation Physics and Chemistry, 2007, 76, 1728. View

[18]     K. Varlot, J. M. Martin, C. Quet, Y. Kihn, Chemical analysis of polymers using transmission electron microscopy/electron energy‐loss spectroscopy: The example of poly (ethylene terephthalate), Macromol. Symp. 1997, 119, 317. View

[19]     K. Varlot, J. M. Martin, C. Quet, Physical and chemical changes in polystyrene during electron irradiation using EELS in the TEM: contribution of the dielectric function, Journal of Microscopy, 1998, 191, 187. View

[20]     A. P. Hitchcock, S. G. Urquhart, E. G. Rightor, Inner-Shell Spectroscopy of Benzaldehyde, Terephthalaldehyde, Ethyl Benzoate, Terephthaloyl Chloride, and Phosgene: Models for Core Excitatlon of Poly (ethylene terephthalate), J. Phys. Chem. 1992, 96, 8736. View

[21]     K. Varlot, J. M. Martin, D. Gonbeau, C. Quet, Chemical bonding analysis of electron-sensitive polymers by EELS, Polymer, 1999, 40, 5691. View

[22]     A. Barlow, R. S. Lehrle, J. C. Robb, D. Sunderland, Polymethylmethacrylate Degradation Kinetics and Mechanisms in the Temperature Range 340 ° to 460°C, Polymer, 1967, 8, 537. View

[23]     Ismayil, V. Ravindrachary, R.F. Bhajantri, S.D. Praveena, B. Poojary, D. Dutta, P.K. Pujari, Optical and microstructural studies on electron irradiated PMMA: A positron annihilation study, Polymer Degradation and Stability, 2010, 95, 1083. View

[24]     J. A. Moore and Jin O. Choi, Degradation of Poly(methyl methacrylate) Deep UV, X-ray, Electron-Beam, and Proton-Beam Irradiation, Radiation Effects on Polymers, ACS Symposium Series, 1991, 475, Chapter 11, 156. View

[25]     R. Nathawat, A. Kumar, N.K. Acharya, Y.K. Vijay, XPS and AFM surface study of PMMA irradiated by electron beam, Surface & Coatings Technology, 2009, 203, 2600. View

[26]     R. F. Egerton, S. Lazar, M. Libera, Delocalized radiation damage in polymers, Micron, 2012, 43, 2. View

[27]     K. Varlot, J.M. Martin, C. Quet, EELS analysis of PMMA at high spatial resolution, Micron, 2001, 32, 371. View

[28]     K. Varlot, J.M. Martin, C. Quet, Y. Kihn, Towards sub-nanometer scale EELS analysis of polymers in the TEM, Ultramicroscopy, 1997, 68, 123. View

[29]     T. Faravelli, M. Pinciroli, F. Pisano, G. Bozzano, M. Dente, E. Ranzi, Thermal degradation of polystyrene, Journal of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis, 2001, 60, 103. View

[30]     A. Guyot, Recent Developments in the Thermal Degradation of Polystyrenc A Review, Polymer Degradation and Stability, 1986, 15, 219. View

[31]     I. C. McNeill, M. Zulfiqar, T. Kousar, A Detailed Investigation of the Products of the Thermal Degradation of Polystyrene, Polymer Degradation and Stability, 1990, 28, 131. View

[32]     G. Madras, G. Y. Chung, J. M. Smith, and B. J. McCoy, Molecular Weight Effect on the Dynamics of Polystyrene Degradation, Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., 1997, 36, 2019. View

 [33]    S. Massey, P. Cloutier, M. Bazin, L. Sanche, D. Roy, Chemical Modification of Polystyrene by Low-Energy (<100 eV) Electron Irradiation Studied by Mass Spectrometry, Journal of Applied Polymer Science, 2008, 108, 3163. View

[34]     V. Svorcik, V. Rybka, V. Hnatowicz, M. Novotna, M. Vognar, Electron Beam Modification of Polyethylene and Polystyrene, Journal of Applied Polymer Science, 1997, 64, 2529. View

[35]     J. J. Ritsko, R. W. Bigelow, Core excitons and the dielectric response of polystyrene and poly(2‐vinylpyridine) from 1 to 400 eV, The Journal of Chemical Physics, 1978, 69, 4162. View

[36]     E. Kosobrodova, A. Kondyurin, W. Chrzanowski, D.G. McCulloch, D.R. McKenzie, M.M.M. Bilek, Optical properties and oxidation of carbonized and cross-linked structures formed in polycarbonate by plasma immersion ion implantation, Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B, 2014, 329, 52. View

[37]     H. Kaczmarek, A. Felczak, A. Szalla, Studies of photochemical transformations in polystyrene and styrene–maleic anhydride copolymer, Polymer Degradation and Stability, 2008, 93, 1259. View

[38]     C.P. Ennis, R.I. Kaiser, Mechanistical studies on the electron-induced degradation of polymethylmethacrylate and Kapton, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 2010, 12, 14902. View

How to Cite
P. Singh, B. Venugopal, and D. Nandini, “Effect of Electron Beam Irradiation on Polymers”, J. Mod. Mater., vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 24-33, May 2018.
Research Article