Effect of Embedded Strain Gage on the Mechanical Behavior of Composite Structures

  • Soufiane Belhouideg Department of Physics, Polydisciplinary Faculty, Sultan Moulay Slimane University, Beni Mellal, Morocco
  • Manuel Lagache Department of Polytech Annecy Chambery, Univ. Savoie, SYMME, F-74000 Annecy, France


Fiber reinforced composites are increasingly used in several fields such as aeronautics and civil engineering due to their increased strength, durability, corrosion resistance, resistance to fatigue and damage tolerance characteristics. The embedding of sensor networks into such composite structures can be achieved. In the present study, glass fiber reinforced Epoxy composite with integrated strain gage was analysed. Firstly, the mechanical behaviour of this material with embedded strain gage is investigated. The as-prepared samples have been tested under tensile and flexural loading in order to study the effects of the strain gage embedding on the structural stiffness and strength of the composite. It was found that the tensile stiffness decreases by 5.8% and the tensile strength decrease by 1.5% when the strain gage embedded in the material. On the other hand, the flexural strength and stiffness is increased, respectively, by 1.5% and 5.5% with an embedded strain gage. The experiments showed that embedded strain gage is functional and demonstrated the successful integration of sensor networks into composite parts. The obtained results confirm that integrated strain gage can be used for the Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) of glass fiber reinforced Epoxy composite.

Keywords: Mechanical behaviour, Smart Composite, Structural Health Monitoring, Strain gage


Download data is not yet available.


[1]       D. H. Li, Q. R. Guo, D. Xu, and X. Yang, "Three-dimensional micromechanical analysis models of fiber reinforced composite plates with damage," Computers & Structures, vol. 191, pp. 100-114, 2017. Article

[2]       S. Erden and K. Ho, "3 - Fiber reinforced composites," in Fiber Technology for Fiber-Reinforced Composites, ed: Woodhead Publishing, 2017, pp. 51-79. Article

[3]       V. Arikan and O. Sayman, "Comparative study on repeated impact response of E-glass fiber reinforced polypropylene & epoxy matrix composites," Composites Part B: Engineering, vol. 83, pp. 1-6, 2015. Article

[4]       S. Gholizadeh, "A review of non-destructive testing methods of composite materials," Procedia Structural Integrity, vol. 1, pp. 50-57, 2016. Article

[5]       M. R. Jolly, A. Prabhakar, B. Sturzu, K. Hollstein, R. Singh, S. Thomas, P. Foote, and A. Shaw, "Review of Non-destructive Testing (NDT) Techniques and their Applicability to Thick Walled Composites," Procedia CIRP, vol. 38, pp. 129-136, 2015. Article

[6]       X. E. Gros, "3 - Non-destructive Testing Techniques," in NDT Data Fusion, ed Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann, 1997, pp. 43-81. Article

[7]       M. Lin and F. K. Chang, "The manufacture of composite structures with a built-in network of piezoceramics," Composites Science and Technology, vol. 62, pp. 919-939, 2002. Article

[8]       V. Giurgiutiu, "16 - Structural health monitoring (SHM) of aerospace composites," in Polymer Composites in the Aerospace Industry, ed: Woodhead Publishing, 2015, pp. 449-507. Article

[9]       V. K. Singh, T. R. Mahapatra, and S. K. Panda, "Nonlinear flexural analysis of single/doubly curved smart composite shell panels integrated with PFRC actuator," European Journal of Mechanics - A/Solids, vol. 60, pp. 300-314, 2016. Article

[10]     I. De Baere, G. Luyckx, E. Voet, W. Van Paepegem, and J. Degrieck, "On the feasibility of optical fibre sensors for strain monitoring in thermoplastic composites under fatigue loading conditions," Optics and Lasers in Engineering, vol. 47, pp. 403-411, 2009. Article

[11]     A. Kunadt, A. Heinig, E. Starke, G. Pfeifer, C. Cheriff, and W. Fischer, "Design and properties of a sensor network embedded in thin fiber-reinforced composites," in Sensors IEEE, 2010, pp. 673-677. Article

[12]     O. Rabinovitch, J. R. Vinson, and Y. Frostig, "High-Order Analysis of Unidirectional Sandwich Panels with Piezolaminated Face Sheets and Soft Core," AIAA Journal, vol. 41, pp. 110-118, 2003. Article

[13]     B. P. Baillargeon and S. S. Vel, "Active Vibration Suppression of Sandwich Beams using Piezoelectric Shear Actuators: Experiments and Numerical Simulations," Journal of Intelligent Material Systems and Structures, vol. 16, pp. 517-530, 2005. Article

[14]     J. L. Abot, Y. Song, M. S. Vatsavaya, S. Medikonda, Z. Kier, C. Jayasinghe, N. Rooy, V. N. Shanov, and M. J. Schulz, "Delamination detection with carbon nanotube thread in self-sensing composite materials," Composites Science and Technology, vol. 70, pp. 1113-1119, 2010. Article

[15]     L. Ye, Y. Lu, Z. Su, and G. Meng, "Functionalized composite structures for new generation airframes: a review," Composites Science and Technology, vol. 65, pp. 1436-1446, 2005. Article

[16]     J. S. Kim, L. Arronche, A. Farrugia, A. Muliana, and V. La Saponara, "Multi-scale modeling of time-dependent response of smart sandwich constructions," Composite Structures, vol. 93, pp. 2196-2207, 2011. Article

[17]     K. S. Kim, M. Breslauer, and G. S. Springer, "The Effect of Embedded Sensors on the Strength of Composite Laminates," Journal of Reinforced Plastics and Composites, vol. 11, pp. 949-958, 1992. Article

[18]     M. Kanerva, P. Antunes, E. Sarlin, O. Orell, J. Jokinen, M. Wallin, T. Brander, and J. Vuorinen, "Direct measurement of residual strains in CFRP-tungsten hybrids using embedded strain gauges," Materials & Design, vol. 127, pp. 352-363, 2017. Article

[19]     H. Y. Ling, K. T. Lau, and C. K. Lam, "Effects of embedded optical fibre on mode II fracture behaviours of woven composite laminates," Composites Part B: Engineering, vol. 36, pp. 534-543, 2005. Article

[20]     R. M. Liu and D. K. Liang, "Experimental study of carbon fiber reinforced plastic with embedded optical fibers," Materials & Design, vol. 31, pp. 994-998, 2010. Article

[21]     K. Schaaf, B. Cook, F. Ghezzo, A. Starr, and S. Nemat-Nasser, "Mechanical properties of composite materials with integrated embedded sensor networks," in Smart Structures and Materials 2005, San Diego, USA, 2005, pp. 781-785. Article

[22]     S. Yousef, M. Tatariants, R. Bendikiene, and G. Denafas, "Mechanical and thermal characterizations of non-metallic components recycled from waste printed circuit boards," Journal of Cleaner Production, vol. 167, pp. 271-280, 2017. Article

[23]     A. S. Swapnil, B. SatheSandip, P. ChaudhariBapu, and S. J. Vishal, "Experimental Investigation of Mechanical Properties of Glass Fibre/Epoxy Composites with variable volume fraction," Materials Today: Proceedings, vol. 4, pp. 9487-9490, 2017. Article

[24]     Z. Aslan and F. Daricik, "Effects of multiple delaminations on the compressive, tensile, flexural, and buckling behaviour of E-glass/epoxy composites," Composites Part B: Engineering, vol. 100, pp. 186-196, 2016. Article

[25]     J. S. Chilles, A. F. Koutsomitopoulou, A. J. Croxford, and I. P. Bond, "Monitoring cure and detecting damage in composites with inductively coupled embedded sensors," Composites Science and Technology, vol. 134, pp. 81-88, 2016. Article

How to Cite
S. Belhouideg and M. Lagache, “Effect of Embedded Strain Gage on the Mechanical Behavior of Composite Structures”, J. Mod. Mater., vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 1-7, Nov. 2017.
Research Article