Influence of Strontium on the Physical, Mechanical and In-Vitro Bioactivity of Glass Ionomer Cements
In this work, we investigated the effects of strontium incorporation in the glass phase of glass ionomer cements (GIC). Three different glass compositions were synthesized with 0, 5, and 10 mol% of SrO addition. GICs were prepared by the addition of 50 wt% polyacrylic acid (PAA) at powder to liquid ratio of 1:1.5. Initial characterization on the cement series was to study their rheological behavior. Cements represented working times between 50-64 seconds and setting times of 356-452 seconds. Rheological results indicated that the addition of strontium decreases the working and setting times of the cements. To analyze the mechanical properties, compressive and flexural strength studies were performed after 1, 10, and 30 days incubation in simulated body fluid (SBF). The compressive strength of the cements increased as a function of incubation time, with the strontium containing compositions showing the highest strength at 34 megapascal (MPa) and after 30 days of incubation. Biaxial flexural strength of the cements was not significantly affected by the composition and maturation time and ranged between 13.4 to 16.3 MPa. In-vitro bioactivity of the cements was analyzed using SBF trials and after 1, 10, and 30 days incubation periods. Strontium containing cements, showed higher solubility with higher amounts of calcium phosphate surface depositions only after 10 days incubation. The elemental identifications of the surface depositions indicated high amounts of Ca, P and Zn are present on the surface of SBF incubated samples.
 M. J. Tyas, and M. F. Burrow, “Adhesive restorative materials: a review,” Australian Dental Journal, vol. 49, no. 3, pp. 112-21; quiz 154, Sep, 2004.
 J. W. Nicholson, “Chemistry of glass-ionomer cements: a review,” Biomaterials, vol. 19, no. 6, pp. 485-494, Mar, 1998.
 T. P. Croll, and J. Nicholson, “Glass ionomer cements in pediatric dentistry: review of the literature,” Pediatric dentistry, vol. 24, no. 5, pp. 423-429, Sep-Oct, 2002.
 S. K. Sidhu, and J. W. Nicholson, “A Review of Glass-Ionomer Cements for Clinical Dentistry,” Journal of Functional Biomaterials, vol. 7, no. 3, Jun 28, 2016.
 J. W. Nicholson, “Adhesion of glass-ionomer cements to teeth: A review,” International Journal of Adhesion and Adhesives, vol. 69, pp. 33-38, 2016.
 S. Mokhtari, and A. W. Wren, "Investigating the effect of Copper Addition on SiO2-ZnO-CaO-SrO-P2O5 Glass Polyalkenoate Cements: Physical, Mechanical and Biological Behavior," Biomedical Glasses, 1,p. 13, 2019.
 U. Lohbauer, “Dental Glass Ionomer Cements as Permanent Filling Materials? – Properties, Limitations and Future Trends,” Materials, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 76-96, 2009.
 P. V. Hatton, K. Hurrell-Gillingham, and I. M. Brook, “Biocompatibility of glass-ionomer bone cements,” Journal of Dentistry, vol. 34, no. 8, pp. 598-601, Sep, 2006.
 S. Mokhtari, K. D. Skelly, E. A. Krull, A. Coughlan, N. P. Mellott, Y. Gong, R. Borges, and A. W. Wren, “Copper-containing glass polyalkenoate cements based on SiO2–ZnO–CaO–SrO–P2O5 glasses: glass characterization, physical and antibacterial properties,” Journal of Materials Science, vol. 52, no. 15, pp. 8886-8903, 2017.
 A. A. Gorustovich, T. Steimetz, R. L. Cabrini, and J. M. Porto Lopez, “Osteoconductivity of strontium-doped bioactive glass particles: a histomorphometric study in rats,” Journal of biomedical materials research. Part A, vol. 92, no. 1, pp. 232-7, Jan, 2010.
 J. W. Nicholson, and B. Czarnecka, “Review paper: Role of aluminum in glass-ionomer dental cements and its biological effects,” Journal of Biomaterials Applications, vol. 24, no. 4, pp. 293-308, Nov, 2009.
 A. D. Wilson, and J. W. Nicholson, Acid-base cements: their biomedical and industrial applications: Cambridge University Press, 2005.
 D. S. Brauer, E. Gentleman, D. F. Farrar, M. M. Stevens, and R. G. Hill, “Benefits and drawbacks of zinc in glass ionomer bone cements,” Biomedical Materials, vol. 6, no. 4, pp. 045007, Aug, 2011.
 J. W. Nicholson, J. H. Braybrook, and E. A. Wasson, “The biocompatibility of glass-poly(alkenoate) (Glass-Ionomer) cements: A review,” Journal of Biomaterials Science, Polymer Edition, vol. 2, no. 4, pp. 277-285, 1991.
 S. G. Griffin, and R. G. Hill, “Influence of glass composition on the properties of glass polyalkenoate cements. Part I: influence of aluminium to silicon ratio,” Biomaterials, vol. 20, no. 17, pp. 1579-86, Sep, 1999.
 M. Towler, C. Crowley, D. Murphy, and A. M. C. O'Callaghan, “A preliminary study of aluminum-free glass polyalkenoate cement,” Journal of Materials Science Letters, vol. 21, pp. 1123-1126, 2002.
 S. Mokhtari, E. A. Krull, L. M. Sanders, A. Coughlan, N. P. Mellott, Y. Gong, R. Borges, and A. W. Wren, “Investigating the effect of germanium on the structure of SiO2-ZnO-CaO-SrO-P2O5 glasses and the subsequent influence on glass polyalkenoate cement formation, solubility and bioactivity,” Materials Science and Engineering: C, vol. 103, pp. 109843, 2019.
 Y. C. Fredholm, N. Karpukhina, R. V. Law, and R. G. Hill, “Strontium containing bioactive glasses: Glass structure and physical properties,” Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids, vol. 356, no. 44, pp. 2546-2551, 2010.
 J. Lao, E. Jallot, and J.-M. Nedelec, “Strontium-Delivering Glasses with Enhanced Bioactivity: A New Biomaterial for Antiosteoporotic Applications?,” Chemistry of Materials, vol. 20, no. 15, pp. 4969-4973, 2008.
 M. O’donnell, P. Candarlioglu, C. Miller, E. Gentleman, and M. Stevens, “Materials characterisation and cytotoxic assessment of strontium-substituted bioactive glasses for bone regeneration,” Journal of Materials Chemistry, vol. 20, no. 40, pp. 8934-8941, 2010.
 A. l. J. Leite, A. I. Gonçalves, M. r. T. Rodrigues, M. E. Gomes, and J. o. F. Mano, “Strontium-Doped Bioactive Glass Nanoparticles in Osteogenic Commitment,” ACS applied materials & interfaces, vol. 10, no. 27, pp. 23311-23320, Jul 11, 2018.
 J. Hao, A. Acharya, K. Chen, J. Chou, S. Kasugai, and N. Lang, “Novel bioresorbable strontium hydroxyapatite membrane for guided bone regeneration,” Clinical oral implants research, vol. 26, no. 1, pp. 1-7, 2015.
 H. Tripathi, C. Rath, A. S. Kumar, P. P. Manna, and S. Singh, “Structural, physico-mechanical and in-vitro bioactivity studies on SiO2–CaO–P2O5–SrO–Al2O3 bioactive glasses,” Materials Science and Engineering: C, vol. 94, pp. 279-290, 2019.
 International Organization for Standardization 9917, “Dentistry- Dental Water Based Cements, ”Geneva, Switzerland. p. CH-11211, 2017.
 H. J. Prosser, D. R. Powis, and A. D. Wilson, “Glass-ionomer cements of improved flexural strength,” Journal of dental research, vol. 65, no. 2, pp. 146-8, Feb, 1986.
 P. V. Hatton, V. R. Kearns, and I. M. Brook, "11 - Bone–cement fixation: glass–ionomer cements " Joint Replacement Technology, pp. 252-263: Woodhead Publishing, 2008.
 W. Higgs, P. Lucksanasombool, R. Higgs, and M. Swain, “Evaluating acrylic and glass-ionomer cement strength using the biaxial flexure test,” Biomaterials, vol. 22, no. 12, pp. 1583-1590, 2001.
 S. Mokhtari, and A. W. Wren, "13 - Bioactive glasses 2: Composite bone void fillers," Bioactive Glasses (Second Edition), H. Ylänen, ed., pp. 365-380: Woodhead Publishing, 2018.
 L. L. Hench, N. Roki, and M. B. Fenn, “Bioactive glasses: Importance of structure and properties in bone regeneration,” Journal of Molecular Structure, vol. 1073, pp. 24-30, 2014.
Copyright (c) 2019 Yiyu Li (Author)
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
Click here for more information on Copyright policy
Click here for more information on Licensing policy