Multiple Beneficial Effects of Using Biochar (as a Great Organic Material) on Tolerance and Productivity of Rice under Abiotic Stress
Rice as a sensitive crop that usually affected by many harmful environmental stresses. Numerous policies are followed to increase plant growth-tolerance under abiotic-stresses in various plant species. The attempts to improve crop tolerance against abiotic stresses via common breeding method are needed to follow a long-term, and may also be non-affordable, these are due to the existing genetic variability of the plant. Current review analysis existing knowledge gaps, challenges, and opportunities in the biochar application as a beneficial and pyrogenic-C, material. Consequently, a review of the literature with a high focusing on the multiple beneficial effects of using biochar on tolerance and productivity of rice in abiotic stresses is needed. This review provides a summary of those efforts that would be beneficial in reducing inconvenienced abiotic-stresses, and also how using biochar could increase rice tolerance and production through the supporting of plant growth regulator's roles. Accordantly, present review findings showed that biochar is a great amendment and consisting of principally organic rich-C matter, which has multiple benefits on improving soil physicochemical and biological properties as well as increasing rice tolerance and its productivity through enhancing plant hormones roles under abiotic stressed conditions (heat/cold temperature, drought, salinity, heavy metal, and climate change stresses). Nevertheless, it is anticipated that further researches on the benefits of biochar will increase the comprehension of interactions between biochar and plant growth hormones, to accelerate our attempts for improving rice tolerance and productivity, under abiotic-stress conditions.
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