International Annals of Science <p align="justify"><a title="Click for Journal homepage" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><img style="float: right; padding-left: 15px; padding-right: 5px;" src="/public/site/images/aabahishti/IAS_cover_page.jpg" alt="IAS"></a> International Annals of science is an open access, peer-reviewed, online multidisciplinary journal dedicated to publishing high-quality research in all areas of the Computer, Mathematics, Physical, Chemical, Biological, and Earth Sciences. Papers published by the journal represent important advances of significance within each field by AIJR Publisher.<br>International Annals of Science is registered with CrossRef with doi:10.21467/ias and ISSN of this journal is &nbsp;2456-7132 [online].</p> en-US <div id="copyrightNotice"> <p>Author(s) retains full copyright of their article and grants non-exclusive publishing right to&nbsp;International Annals of Science&nbsp;and its publisher “<a title="AIJR Publisher homepage" href="" target="_blank">AIJR</a>&nbsp;(India)”. Author(s) can archive pre-print, post-print and published version/PDF to any open access, institutional repository, social media or personal website provided that Published source must be acknowledged with citation and link to publisher version.<br>Click&nbsp;<a title="Copyright Policy" href="" target="_blank">here</a>&nbsp;for more information on Copyright policy<br>Click&nbsp;<a title="Licensing Policy" href="/index.php/ias/about#licensing">here</a>&nbsp;for more information on Licensing policy</p> </div> (Int. Annals of Science) (Technical Support) Wed, 06 Nov 2019 00:00:00 +0000 OJS 60 Conformable Derivatives in Laplace Equation and Fractional Fourier Series Solution <p>In this paper the solution of conformable Laplace equation, \frac{\partial^{\alpha}u(x,y)}{\partial x^{\alpha}}+ \frac{\partial^{\alpha}u(x,y)}{\partial y^{\alpha}}=0, where 1 &lt; α ≤ 2 has been deduced by using fractional fourier series and separation of variables method. For special cases α =2 (Laplace's equation), α=1.9, and α=1.8 conformable fractional fourier coefficients have been calculated. To calculate coefficients, integrals are of type "conformable fractional integral".</p> Ronak Pashaei, Mohammad Sadegh Asgari, Amir Pishkoo ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 07 Nov 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Haulm Forage Value of Lentil Varieties in Central Ethiopia <p>The major livestock feed next to natural pasture in central highlands of Ethiopia is cereal crop residue; however, supplementation with additional nutritional entities is most often recommended.&nbsp; The present study aims to examine the nutritive value of lentil haulm and how this value varies among the varieties and locations. For this, 80gms of haulm samples of Alemaya, Derash and local lentil varieties were collected with four replications from Bishoftu, Akaki, and Chefe-Donsa from on farm trial sites of Ethiopian institute of agricultural research. To test for the variation in haulm nutritional values among the varieties, two-way ANOVA was employed. The results showed that the interaction of variety and location had significant effect on crude protein (CP), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), metabolizable energy (ME) and in vitro organic matter digestibility (IVOMD) (P&lt;0.05). Here, CP content of lentil haulm was higher for a local variety when compared with the two commercial varieties. The haulm yield (4.38t/ha) and haulm dry matter yield (3.97 t DM/ha) were higher for Derash when compared with that of the local variety (P&lt;0.05). Overall, the present finding denoted that although in some cases the lentil haulm nutritional values and yields vary among varieties and were dependent on growing locations, it can be observed to have optimum feeding values to supplement livestock feed with the cereal crop residues in central Ethiopia.</p> Asemahegn Mersha Hailegiorgis, Debissa Lemessa ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 14 Nov 2019 09:30:59 +0000 Heavy Metal Resistance by Endophytic Bacteria Isolated from Guava (Psidium Guajava) and Mango (Mangifera Indica) Leaves <p>Heavy metal resistant bacteria are widespread in nature and their application in decontamination of polluted ecosystems is promising. In this study, ability of endophytic bacteria isolated from <em>Psidium guajava</em> (Guava) and<em> Mangifera indica</em> (Mango) for heavy metal resistance was assessed. Leaves samples form the two plants were collected and processed according to the standard laboratory practices. Heavy metals were analyzed using Atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Endophytic bacteria were isolated and identified using morphological and biochemical characteristics; heavy metal resistance was determined by plate dilution method. Heavy metal analysis revealed that the leaves samples contained considerable quantities of Manganese (Mn), Lead (Pb) and Cadmium (Cd) ranging from 1.21±1.6 mg/Kg (for Cd in Guava leaves) to 116.58±1.3 mg/Kg (for Mn in Mango leaves). A total of six bacterial species were isolated from both of the plants leaves (3 each). Guava endophytes were identified as <em>Streptococcus </em>sp<em>, Staphylococcus albus </em>and<em> Staphylococcus seiuri </em>whereas <em>Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus xylulose </em>and <em>Staphylococcus intermedius </em>were from Mango leaves. The identified isolates were tested for ability to resist heavy metals <em>in-vitro</em> and were capable of showing different patterns of resistance to MnCl<sub>2</sub>, PbCl<sub>2</sub> and CdCl<sub>2</sub>.&nbsp; All the endophytes were highly resistant to PbCl<sub>2</sub> followed by MnCl<sub>2</sub> but susceptible to CdCl<sub>2</sub>. The ability of plants and bacterial endophytes understudy to tolerate or resist heavy metals is a good indication of their phytoremediation potentials and thus, should be harnessed.</p> Maryam Lami Riskuwa-Shehu, Haruna Yahaya Ismail, Udem Joshua Josiah Ijah ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sat, 16 Nov 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Prevalence of Intestinal Helminth Infections of Stray Dogs of Public Health Significance in Lagos Metropolis, Nigeria <p>Globally, stray dogs have been a major source of zoonoses such as cutaneous larval migrans, visceral larval migrans and hydatidosis. These dogs are recognized as being a major public health problem where their population is unchecked. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of intestinal helminth parasites of stray dogs in Lagos metropolis. Stools of 96 stray dogs were examined microscopically for ova of these parasites using centrifugation flotation method. Four species of intestinal helminths were identified. The overall prevalence of helminths infection was 61.4%, with <em>Ancylostoma caninum </em>having a prevalence of 62.5%, <em>Toxocara canis </em>20.8%<em>, Dipylidium caninum </em>18.7% and <em>Strongyloides stercoralis </em>2.0%. <em>T. canis</em> had the highest worm burden of 1,250 egg per gram (EPG) while <em>S. stercoralis</em> had the least (100 EPG). The areas with the most helminth infections were Yaba (n=12,<em> X̄</em><em>=1.58, SD=0.793</em>), Agege (n=11,<em> X̄</em><em>=1.73, SD=0.786</em>) and Ikotun (n=11,<em> X̄</em><em>=1.45, SD=0.820</em>). <em>S. stercoralis </em>was only found in samples obtained from Mushin and Ikorodu. Most of the stool samples obtained from this study had mixed infections, 83.3% were infected with three helminth species, 8.3% were infected with four helminth species and none had double infection. Mushin had the most mixed infections (n=4, <em>X̄</em><em>=1.900, SD=1.101</em>) while Obalende had the least (n=1, <em>X̄</em><em>=1.000, SD=0.000</em>). Most of the intestinal helminth parasites identified in this study are zoonotic and thus pose a public health problem. Environmental factors seem to influence the health condition of these dogs, thus concerted efforts should be made to reduce the growing population of stray dogs on the street of Lagos.</p> Olatunji Ayodeji Abulude ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sat, 16 Nov 2019 07:26:23 +0000 Outdoor Air Quality and Antibiogram Characteristics of Bacterial Isolates of Akure City Abattoirs, Nigeria <p>Air sampling of Onyearugbulem and FUTA abattoirs was carried out to evaluate their quality. Air sampling was done using the open-settling method on general and selective agar media of the gutter, sleeping bench, slaughtering floor dumpsite, slaughtering table and roof of the abattoirs.&nbsp; Using standard methods, Presumptive identification of the bacterial isolates was carried out. An array of ten (10) conventional antibiotics was used to assay the antibiotic susceptibility characteristics of the bacterial isolates. Multiple antibiotic sensitivity index (MARI) was determined for isolated bacteria. At Onyearugbulem abattoir, the total <em>Escherichia coli</em> count ranged from 3.6×10 cfu/ml from the gutter and slaughtering table to 6.5×10 cfu/ml from the slaughtering floor, while the total bacterial count ranged from 1.34×10<sup>2</sup> cfu/ml from dumpsite to 2.55×10<sup>2</sup> cfu/ml from the gutter, the total coliform count ranged from 2.8× 10 cfu/ml from slaughtering floor to 4.1×10 cfu/ml from sleeping bench. Several bacteria were presumptively isolated. These include: <em>Micrococcus </em>sp.<em>, Bacillus </em>sp.<em>, Staphylococcus aureus,</em> <em>Escherichia coli, Proteus </em>sp.,<em> Enterobacter aerogenes </em>and<em> Aeromonas </em>sp. Ciprofloxacin (10 µg) had an inhibitory effect on all the Gram positive bacterial isolates with the highest inhibitory activity on <em>S. aureus </em>at 24.00 mm, and the Gram negative bacteria with the highest inhibitory activity on <em>E. coli </em>at 21.00 mm. <em>Micrococcus </em>sp. had the highest MARI of 0.8. These findings reveal the presence of multiple-antibiotic resistant bacteria in Onyearugbulem and FUTA abattoirs’ atmosphere. There is therefore need for routine environmental sanitation of the slaughterhouses.</p> Olubukola Olayemi Olusola-makinde ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sat, 16 Nov 2019 09:24:59 +0000 He’s Multiple-scale Solution for the Three-dimensional Nonlinear KH Instability of Rotating Magnetic Fluids <p>This paper elucidates a trend in solving nonlinear&nbsp;oscillators of the rotating Kelvin-Helmholtz instability. The system is constituted by the vertical&nbsp;flux&nbsp;or the horizontal&nbsp;flux. He’s multiple-scales perturbation&nbsp;methodology&nbsp;has been applied&nbsp;and therefore the&nbsp;system is&nbsp;represented&nbsp;by a generalized homotopy equation. This approach&nbsp;ends up in a periodic&nbsp;answer&nbsp;to a&nbsp;nonlinear&nbsp;oscillator&nbsp;with high nonlinearity. The cubic-quintic&nbsp;nonlinear&nbsp;Duffing equation is&nbsp;obligatory&nbsp;as a condition to uniformly answer. This equation&nbsp;is employed&nbsp;to derive&nbsp;the stability&nbsp;criteria. The transition curves&nbsp;are plotted to investigate the stability image.&nbsp;It's&nbsp;shown that the angular&nbsp;velocity suppresses the instability. The tangential&nbsp;flux&nbsp;plays a&nbsp;helpful&nbsp;role, whereas&nbsp;the vertical field&nbsp;encompasses a destabilizing influence. Within the existence of the rotation, the velocity ratio reduces stability configuration.</p> Yusry Osman El-Dib, Amal A Mady ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 06 Dec 2019 07:33:08 +0000 Anti-nutritional Composition, Heavy Metal Content and Mineral Bioavailability of Red Tree Vine (Leea guineensis G. Don) Fruits <p><em>Leea guineensis </em>G. Don is an evergreen shrub that has been reported to be important in Nigeria due to its medicinal and nutritional uses. However, there is paucity of documented information on the anti-nutritional composition, heavy metal content and mineral bioavailability of <em>L. guineensis </em>whole fruits<em>.</em> Hence, this study investigated the essential minerals, heavy metals and anti-nutritional compositions of <em>L. guineensis</em> whole fruits with a view to assess the quantity, bioavailability of the mineral elements and ultimately the safety of the fruits using standard analytical procedures. The results of phytochemical screening confirmed presence of secondary metabolites in varying quantities. The anti-nutrient contents (mg/100g) were phytates (29530); oxalates (510); saponins (10333); alkaloids (30533) and tannins (53.3). The results of mineral analysis revealed that <em>L. guineensis</em> fruits were rich in essential minerals (mg/100g) like, potassium (493); calcium (200); magnesium (103.3); phosphorus (9.9); zinc (8.5); manganese (5.5) and iron (5.0). The heavy metals concentrations were in the order lead&gt;chromium&gt;nickel&gt;cobalt&gt;cadmium. The values obtained were within the WHO permissible limits for heavy metals in medicinal plants. Meanwhile, the results of molar ratio phytates: Ca (8.97); oxalates: Ca (0.7978) and Ca.phytates:Zn (0.64) were below the suggested critical values indicating the bioavailability of calcium to be high. While phytates: Fe (501.06) and phytates: Zn (348.22) were higher than the critical values indicating poor bioavailability of Fe and Zn. The study therefore suggests that <em>L. guineensis </em>fruits are a good source of phyto-minerals which can be harnessed for nutritional purpose. Also, the anti-nutrient contents in <em>L. guineensis </em>whole fruits should be reduced to a safe level through processing methods (soaking, de-pulping or fermentation) in order to achieve its optimum nutritional or medicinal use.</p> Musbau Bayonle Olaniyii, Samsideen Olabiyi Rufai ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sun, 08 Dec 2019 13:31:06 +0000 The 14-3-3 (YWHA) Proteins in Signalling and Development of the Fruit Fly, Drosophila melanogaster <p>The 14-3-3 (YWHA or Tyrosine 3-Monooxygenase/Tryptophan 5-Monooxygenase Activation proteins) are a family of highly conserved, homologous proteins critical to diverse cellular events including cell cycle, signal transduction and embryonic development.&nbsp; Various species-specific isoforms of 14-3-3 exist, encoded by separate genes.&nbsp; They are expressed in a wide variety of organisms ranging from plants to animals, including the fruit fly or <em>Drosophila melanogaster</em>.&nbsp; <em>Drosophila </em>is one of the most universally accepted model systems to study complex cellular mechanisms of signalling and development.&nbsp; However, regulation of these processes in fruit flies by the 14-3-3 proteins have not been entirely understood.&nbsp; This mini review encapsulates the expression, distribution, interactions and regulatory roles of the 14-3-3 proteins in <em>Drosophila</em>.&nbsp; The analysis would help to elucidate some of the molecular bases of key cell-signalling mechanisms and development.</p> Santanu De ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sun, 08 Dec 2019 15:29:31 +0000 Isolation and Activity Determination of Enzyme Phosphatase Secreted by Aspergillus niger <p>The use of enzymes on industrial scale saves a lot of energy and avoids pollution, thus holding a promise for green and economically sustainable alternative strategies in industrial transformations.&nbsp; Generally, the fungi <em>Aspergillus niger </em>secretes enzymes which can be used in different industries. Thus, coming up with these enzymes in large amounts will definitely result in reduced costs encountered in importing them for industrial use. &nbsp;This study focussed on isolation and activity determination of an enzyme phosphatase secreted by <em>Aspergillus niger</em>.&nbsp; This enzyme can be of great importance in molecular biology industries, particularly for recombinant DNA technology.&nbsp; For this study, pure cultures of <em>Aspergillus niger</em> were used.&nbsp; <em>Aspergillus niger</em> was resuscitated on potato dextrose agar and then subcultured in Adam’s medium, a medium specific for the production of phosphatase.&nbsp; Cells were centrifuged and the filtrate was collected whilst the residue was discarded. The filtrate was expected to contain the crude enzyme phosphatase since <em>Aspergillus niger </em>secretes the extracellular enzyme into the medium. Disodium phenyl phosphate was used as a substrate for the determination of the phosphatase activity. The enzyme activity was determined spectrophotometrically by reading absorbance of phenol formed in the presence of enzyme and the substrate. The concentration of phenol liberated was then used to calculate the enzyme activity expressed in King Armstrong Units (KAU). &nbsp;Further work on enzyme activity determination was done by varying enzyme and substrate concentrations.&nbsp; Results showed that the isolated alkaline phosphatase had activity of 4.0 KAU and 4.5 KAU at 25 ºC and 37 ºC respectively. Acidic phosphatase had activity of 5 KAU and 7 KAU at 25 ºC and 37 ºC respectively. Rate of activity increased upon increasing enzyme concentration and substrate.&nbsp; Thus, <em>Aspergillus niger</em> produces the enzyme phosphatase, however, there is need to induce the production of these enzymes for industrial use.</p> Tafadzwa Zharare, Rumbidzai Mangoyi ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sat, 16 Nov 2019 09:39:43 +0000 Effects of Four Different Food Additives on the Oxidative Stress Markers of Wistar Albino Rats <p>This work investigated the effects of food additives on the oxidative stress markers and liver marker enzymes. Food additives are products added to the basic food stuff with an aim of improving its flavor, aspect, texture, color, taste, and value. Thirty (30) Wistar rats were divided into five groups of six rats each. Group A received a daily dose of distillated water and normal rat pellet, Group B, C, D and E received 20 mg/kg body of Aspartame, Sodium Benzoate, Sodium nitrite and sodium sulfite respectively. The duration for exposure of these animals to food additives was 30 days and the groups were observed daily for general conditions. At the end of feeding the animals, blood samples were collected and analyzed. The result of the analysis showed that ALT significantly (p&lt;0.05) increased with sodium nitrite and sodium sulfite while ALP increased significantly (p&lt;0.05) with sodium sulphite. The oxidative stress biomarker, catalase showed a significant increase with sodium benzoate and sodium sulphite. The results revealed that the food additives are injurious to the animals. The toxicity of the food additives studied at 20 mg/kg are in the order of Sodium nitrite &gt; Sodium benzoate &gt; Sodium sulphite &gt; Aspartame.</p> Ifemeje J C, Ezeonyemalu U E, Chukwuebuka Egbuna, Olisah M C, Ifemeje M O ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sun, 24 Nov 2019 00:00:00 +0000