International Annals of Science <p align="justify"><a title="Click for Journal homepage" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><img style="float: right; padding-left: 15px; padding-right: 5px;" src="/public/site/images/aabahishti/IAS_cover_page.jpg" alt="IAS"></a> International Annals of science is an open access, peer-reviewed, online multidisciplinary journal dedicated to publishing high-quality research in all areas of the Computer, Mathematics, Physical, Chemical, Biological, and Earth Sciences. Papers published by the journal represent important advances of significance within each field by AIJR Publisher.<br>International Annals of Science is registered with CrossRef with doi:10.21467/ias and ISSN of this journal is &nbsp;2456-7132 [online].</p> AIJR Publisher en-US International Annals of Science 2456-7132 <div id="copyrightNotice"> <p>Author(s) retains full copyright of their article and grants non-exclusive publishing right to&nbsp;International Annals of Science&nbsp;and its publisher “<a title="AIJR Publisher homepage" href="" target="_blank">AIJR</a>&nbsp;(India)”. Author(s) can archive pre-print, post-print and published version/PDF to any open access, institutional repository, social media or personal website provided that Published source must be acknowledged with citation and link to publisher version.<br>Click&nbsp;<a title="Copyright Policy" href="" target="_blank">here</a>&nbsp;for more information on Copyright policy<br>Click&nbsp;<a title="Licensing Policy" href="/index.php/ias/about#licensing">here</a>&nbsp;for more information on Licensing policy</p> </div> COVID-19 Pandemic and Research Publications; Necessity of Maintaining Scientific Integrity <p>Since the COVID-19 outbreak began in China, scientists and health professionals have rushed to understand and mitigate the threat, however, its root cause, spreading characteristic, effective way to control as well as therapeutical approaches are still a mystery and matter of scientific debate. In an effort to fight against this disease scientists also rushed for a global collaborative approach by sharing their findings so that others can use known information. In view of such emergency scientific journals took steps to expedite the peer review process for coronavirus-related manuscripts which poses another challenge of scientific integrity. Community attention on integrity brought another concern where many authors argue against the idea of peer-review exception which compromises high standard for quality in the name of crisis situations. In the space of eight months, the research community’s response to COVID-19 gives rise to a large volume of paper submission which required rigorous reviewing and of course huge amount of time however, it’s also time which demands fastest publication of the latest finding. To balance in scientific integrity of scholarly journal as well as crisis demand to expedite dissemination of known knowledge, AIJR took a unique approach for COVID-19 related manuscript submission to <em>Int. Ann. Sci</em>. only through AIJR preprints invitation. In this approach author shall post COVID-19 related articles to AIJR Preprints and if it seems suitable for further peer-reviewing, author will get invited to submit to <em>Int. Ann Sci. </em>otherwise author will be advised to improve the article with an updated version. In this way the latest finding can get disseminated immediately as a preprint and after submission to the journal it can undergo standard reviewing process to maintain the scientific integrity. Although invitation through preprints serves both purpose of fastest dissemination and the journal can maintain scientific integrity, preprint may have its own risk for sharing non-reviewed version which may include dishonest findings. The only way to make preprints a great place for accelerated publishing and minimize associated risk of sharing non-reviewed findings is that the authors, readers, and most importantly media reporters act in a vigilant manner by following the sharing responsibility and guidelines adhering to the highest ethical standards.</p> D Qaiser Copyright (c) 2020 D Qaiser 2020-09-04 2020-09-04 10 1 1 6 10.21467/ias.10.1.1-6 Strategies of Plant Biotechnology to Meet the Increasing Demand of Food and Nutrition in India <p>A groundbreaking application of biotechnology research during the recent past has been improvement of crop health and production. India being one of the most rapidly developing countries with an enormous population and remarkable biodiversity, plant biotechnology promises significant potential to contribute to characterization and conservation of the biodiversity, increasing its usefulness. However, India’s green revolution was noted to be insufficient to feed the country's teeming millions. Therefore, novel approaches in crop biotechnology had to be aimed at ensuring better productivity and quality of cultivars. This paper provides a comprehensive review of research undertaken mainly in the last couple of decades along with potential strategies in plant biotechnology focusing on specific grain and seed crops of key agricultural as well as dietary importance to meet the growing demand of food and nutrition in India, while also proposing potential application of relevant global research findings in the Indian context. The analysis would help address the ever-increasing worldwide socio-economic necessity for greater food security, particularly during times of crisis such as the recent Coronavirus Infectious Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic.</p> Santanu De Copyright (c) 2020 Santanu De 2020-09-04 2020-09-04 10 1 7 15 10.21467/ias.10.1.7-15 Mechanism of Organic Odor Generation from Thermophilically Digested Biosolids <p>In anticipation to generate more stabilized biosolids, thermophilic anaerobic digestion systems are widely used to destroy greater sludge organics thus making them less odorous. In this study, single-stage thermophilic (at 55 ℃) and mesophilic (at 37 ℃) anaerobic digesters were studied to compare organic removal efficiencies and sulfur-based odor generation from their biosolids. Although the thermophilic system removed about 9% more volatile solids than the mesophilic system, about 55 times more odorous organic sulfur compounds were measured from dewatered thermophilic biosolids. Different methanogenic species were found to be responsible for malodorous dewatered biosolids from the thermophilic anaerobic digester.</p> Jongmin Kim Copyright (c) 2020 Jongmin kim 2020-09-04 2020-09-04 10 1 60 66 10.21467/ias.10.1.60-66 Characterization of Biodiesel from Alkaline Refinement of Waste Cooking Oil <p>The waste cooking oil (WCO) is a low cost and prospective feedstock with no competitive food uses for biodiesel production, but the yield and quality have been greatly affected by impurities. This study examined the chemical and fuel quality of biodiesel of both WCO and alkaline treated WCO. The transesterification process using the alkaline treated cooking oil (ACO) methanol and sodium hydroxide as catalyst followed the Association of Officials of Analytical Chemists (AOAC) techniques. The pH values between 7.27 and 8.65 were found for alkaline treated cooking methyl ester (ACME), alkaline treated cooking oil (ACO) and WCO. Density of ACME, ACO and WCO varied between 0.89 and 0.93 (g/cm<sup>3</sup>). The fatty acids found were benzoic acid (3.77%), octanoic acid (8.35%), and palmitic acid (75.02%) – most abundant. Comparison of results with the American Standard for Testing Materials (ASTM) values showed quality enhancements of ACO in physicochemical and fuel properties over WCO. The biodiesels from ACO have enhanced emulsification, fuel and free fatty acids qualities over the WCO, showing the refinement methodology of WCO has overall improvement in the biodiesel purity and quality against the previous conflicting reports.</p> Aliru Olajide Mustapha Amina Abiola Adebisi Bukola Opeyemi Olanipekun Copyright (c) 2020 Aliru Olajide Mustapha, Amina Abiola Adebisi, Bukola Opeyemi Olanipekun 2020-09-04 2020-09-04 10 1 16 24 10.21467/ias.10.1.16-24 Maximum Flow Evacuation Planning Problem with Non-Conservation Flow Constraint <p class="Abstract">The optimization model of the maximum flow evacuation planning problem efficiently sends a maximum number of evacuees along with the routes of their transshipment from the disastrous zone, the source, to the safe zone, the sink, over a given time horizon. The limitation of the problem with the flow conservation constraint at the intermediate nodes is that even one more evacuee cannot be sent out from the source, if the evacuee cannot reach the sink. However, evacuators must attempt to send out as many evacuees as possible to safer places despite the sink. There may be relatively safe places in between the source and the sink. The limitation is due to the flow conservation constraint. In this paper, we remodel the problem with non-conservation flow constraint and propose an efficient algorithm. With this approach one can send as many evacuees as in the flow conservation case from the source to the sink. Moreover, a maximum number of evacuees can also be sent to the relatively safe places in between the source and the sink. The routes of their transshipment can also be identified.</p> Phanindra Prasad Bhandari Shree Ram Khadka Copyright (c) 2020 Phanindra Prasad Bhandari, Shree Ram Khadka 2020-09-04 2020-09-04 10 1 25 32 10.21467/ias.10.1.25-32 Identification of Sand Flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) Collected from Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Endemic Focus in the Ho Municipality, Ghana <p>Leishmaniasis, is a vector-borne disease transmitted to humans through the bite of infected female sand flies. Active and continuous monitoring of the sand fly is an important aspect of disease control. Thus, the correct identification of its vectors is paramount in this regard. Objective: The study was conducted to morphologically and molecularly identify female sand fly species in a cutaneous leishmaniasis endemic focus collected in three villages in the Ho Municipality of the Volta region based on taxonomic keys. CDC light traps and sticky paper traps was used for the collection of the sand flies. The morphologically identified sand flies was molecularly confirmed by running PCR with the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase gene subunit I (COI) primers and DNA sequenced. A total of 537 sand flies was collected, made up of 363 females and 174 males. Eleven different species of sand flies was morphologically identified – one Phlebotomus species and ten Sergentomyia species. The PCR amplified products showed bands of molecular weights 658 base pairs for the primers. The molecular identification using the 658-bp fragment of the (COI) gene was congruent with the morphological identification.</p> Edna Dzifa Doe Godwin Kwakye-Nuako Seth Offei Addo Alexander Egyir-Yawson Copyright (c) 2020 Edna Dzifa Doe, Godwin Kwakye-Nuako, Seth Offei Addo, Alexander Egyir-Yawson 2020-09-04 2020-09-04 10 1 33 44 10.21467/ias.10.1.33-44 Larvicidal Activity of Inorganic Salts Against Anopheles Stephensi and Culex Quinquefasciatus <p>Mosquitoes transmit serious human diseases, causing millions of deaths worldwide every year and the development of resistance to chemical insecticides resulting in rebounding vectorial capacity. In this study, the larvicidal bioassays for activities of aqueous solutions of weak acid [(NH<sub>4</sub>)<sub>2</sub>SO<sub>4</sub> and NaH<sub>2</sub>PO<sub>4</sub>] and weak base (Na<sub>2</sub>CO<sub>3</sub> and NaHCO<sub>3</sub>) inorganic salts against late instar larvae of disease vectors Anopheles stephensi and Culex quinquefasciatus were carried out under laboratory settings. The four inorganic salts showed varied levels of larvicidal activities after 24 h-exposure on Anopheles stephensi and Culex quinquefasciatus larvae in a dose-dependent fashion. However, the larvicidal activities were relatively higher in Na<sub>2</sub>CO<sub>3 </sub>(LC50 = 3162 and 447 ppm) and NaHCO<sub>3 </sub>(LC50 = 5623 and 398 ppm) solutions as compared to those in (NH<sub>4</sub>)<sub>2</sub>SO<sub>4 </sub>(LC50 = 7943 and 1995 ppm) and NaH<sub>2</sub>PO<sub>4 </sub>(LC50 = 7943 and 7120 ppm). The present study showed that the inorganic salts Na<sub>2</sub>CO<sub>3</sub>, NaHCO<sub>3</sub>, (NH<sub>4</sub>)<sub>2</sub>SO<sub>4</sub> and NaH<sub>2</sub>PO<sub>4</sub> could serve as potential larviciding agents considering their low toxicity. Therefore, this study provides a first report on the larvicidal activity of the inorganic salts on mosquito larvae of disease vectors.</p> Francis Zakanda Nsimba Thierry Lengu Bobanga Pius Zakayi Kabututu Jean-Marie Iyamba Liesse Copyright (c) 2020 Francis Zakanda Nsimba, Thierry Lengu Bobanga, Pius Zakayi Kabututu, Jean-Marie Iyamba Liesse 2020-09-04 2020-09-04 10 1 45 51 10.21467/ias.10.1.45-51 The 14-3-3 (YWHA) Proteins in Mammalian Reproduction <p>The 14-3-3 (YWHA or Tyrosine 3-Monooxygenase/Tryptophan 5-Monooxygenase Activation protein) is an acidic and homologous protein family involved in regulation of key biological events including cell cycle, signal transduction and development. They are highly conserved and are expressed ubiquitously across a wide variety of species ranging from plants to animals. Seven isoforms of 14-3-3 exist in mammals, which are encoded by separate genes, have tissue-specific, developmental stage-specific as well as isoform-specific presence and consequences. It is known that these proteins play significant roles in mitosis of mammalian cells and meiosis of amphibians. However, their effects on development and functioning of mammalian gonads and germ cells are not entirely delineated. This paper, for the first time, provides a comprehensive review of the comparative expression, localization/distribution, binding interactions, and importance of the 14-3-3 proteins in gametogenesis and reproduction among multiple female and male mammalian species. Thorough understanding of these proteins in oogenesis and spermatogenesis would help elucidate the physiological basis of fertility in mammals, including humans.</p> Santanu De Copyright (c) 2020 Santanu De 2020-09-04 2020-09-04 10 1 52 59 10.21467/ias.10.1.52-59