International Annals of Science <p align="justify"><a title="Click for Journal homepage" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><img style="float: right; padding-left: 15px; padding-right: 5px;" src="/public/site/images/aabahishti/IAS_cover_page.jpg" alt="IAS"></a> International Annals of science is an open access, peer-reviewed, online multidisciplinary journal dedicated to publishing high-quality research in all areas of the Computer, Mathematics, Physical, Chemical, Biological, and Earth Sciences. Papers published by the journal represent important advances of significance within each field by AIJR Publisher.<br>International Annals of Science is registered with CrossRef with doi:10.21467/ias and ISSN of this journal is &nbsp;2456-7132 [online].</p> AIJR Publisher en-US International Annals of Science 2456-7132 <div id="copyrightNotice"> <p>Author(s) retains full copyright of their article and grants non-exclusive publishing right to&nbsp;International Annals of Science&nbsp;and its publisher “<a title="AIJR Publisher homepage" href="" target="_blank">AIJR</a>&nbsp;(India)”. Author(s) can archive pre-print, post-print and published version/PDF to any open access, institutional repository, social media or personal website provided that Published source must be acknowledged with citation and link to publisher version.<br>Click&nbsp;<a title="Copyright Policy" href="" target="_blank">here</a>&nbsp;for more information on Copyright policy<br>Click&nbsp;<a title="Licensing Policy" href="/index.php/ias/about#licensing">here</a>&nbsp;for more information on Licensing policy</p> </div> Comparative Proximate Composition of Maize (Zea mays L.) Varieties Grown in South-western Nigeria <p>Maize, a highly cultivated multipurpose cereal has different varieties grown globally. Six majorly known varieties (Hybrid red solo- V1, Red solo- V2, Solo- V3, Popcorn- V4, Small white- V5 and Big white- V6) found in south-western Nigeria were purposefully selected because of their abundance across the region and were analyzed for their proximate composition. Their composition of different nutrients varied; % crude fat was significantly higher in V5 (4.25%), V4 had a significantly higher % ash content of 1.93%, % crude protein ranged from 9.32% 15.75%, V2 had a significantly low % crude fibre of 0.86%, while V1 had a significantly higher % carbohydrate content of 74.40%. Knowledge of the levels of nutrients present in the different varieties will help in choosing the variety that can suit any intended purpose. V6 (Big white) seems to be the most preferable for human and animal consumption because of its significantly high content in protein and crude fibre coupled with a considerably high fat content.</p> Olufunso Omowunmi Adeniyi Oluwole Sesan Ariwoola ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-01-27 2019-01-27 7 1 1 5 10.21467/ias.7.1.1-5 Physiochemical Analysis of Sandalwood (Santalum Album) Leaf Litters Degraded by Eisenia foetida and Eudrilus eugenia <p>The decay of leaf litter by microflora and fauna furnish nutrient supply to the soil and also uphold ecological sustainability. Applying of proper technique and exploring of result provides information for the betterment of agricultural system. Vermicomposting of Sandalwood <strong>(</strong><em>Santalum album</em>) leaf litters were studied with an emphasis of physio-chemical deviation during the process and also compared with 100 % cattle dung. Obtained result explore that temperate of 50 % leaf litter (LL) and 100 % cattle dung (CD) was slightly elevated (37ºC ±1 ºC and 35ºC ±1 ºC respectively) at beginning phase and later came down to ambient level (20ºC±1 ºC). The total organic carbon (TOC) exhausted 44 % in 50 % LL Vermicomposting mixture while 70 % in 100 % CD during the process. At the final stage, TOC found more in 50% LL as compared to 100% CD. Nitrogen content was found 1.02<strong>±</strong>0.1 in 50 % LL and 0.88<strong>±</strong>0.1 in 100 % CD at the initial phase but after completion of Vermicomposting, their level was increased up to 40 to 44 %.&nbsp; pH was also measured during vermicomposting and found 7.2<strong>±</strong>0.1 in 50% LL while 8.4<strong>±</strong>0.1 in 100% CD at the initial phase. The at the end of process pH raised and set up to 8.2 <strong>±</strong>0.1 in 50% LL while in 100% CD it was found 8.0 <strong>±</strong>0.1.</p> Praveesh Bhati Ritu Nagar Anurag Titov ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-02-10 2019-02-10 7 1 6 11 10.21467/ias.7.1.6-11 Symptom Severity of Nicotiana benthamiana Plants Inoculated with Agrobacterium Containing Infectious DNA-A Clones of Honeysuckle Yellow Vein Virus (HYVV) <p>To investigate the pathogenicity and virulence of the <em>Honeysuckle yellow vein virus </em>(HYVV) lacking betasatellites, PCR amplified unit-lengths of DNA-A genome of HYVV-[DJ] were cloned into binary vector pRI101-AN, and generated HYVV-[DJ]-1mer, -1.3mer and -2mer genomes. Each construct was transformed into <em>Agrobacterium </em>cells and agro-inoculated into young leaves of <em>Nicotiana benthamiana</em>. Except for the HYVV-[DJ]-<em>1mer, </em>HYVV-[DJ]-<em>1.3mer and -2mer </em>clones caused pronounced disease symptoms in <em>N. benthamiana.</em> HYVV-[DJ]-2mer agro-inoculated plants showed more severe plant stunting with downward leaf curling and crinkling than those of HYVV-[DJ]-1.3mer agro-inoculated plants. To discriminate the clone’s virulence quantitatively, SYBR Green-based real-time PCR was performed for the quantification of the target virulence gene DNA in agro-inoculated plants that were collected at weekly intervals for 4 weeks. Regression analysis was obtained from the standard curves by plotting Ct values over the logarithm of the amount of V1 protein gene DNA present in a dilution series of plasmid containing the full-length HYVV-[DJ] genome. Equation of the HYVV <em>V1</em> DNA standard curve was used to quantify <em>V1</em> gene DNA concentration in agro-inoculated plants with each clone. The accumulation of <em>V1</em> gene DNA in HYVV-[DJ]-1.3mer agro-inoculated plants reached the peak level at 4 weeks post inoculation, while the accumulation of <em>V1</em> gene DNA in HYVV-[DJ]-2mer agro-inoculated plants reached the peak level at 3 weeks post inoculation. The amount of <em>V1</em> DNA in HYVV-[DJ]-1.3mer agro-inoculated plants was significantly more than that in HYVV-[DJ]-2mer agro-inoculated plants. Considering the results, there was a difference between the accumulation of virus DNA and the symptom severity of the analyzed plants agro-inoculated with each clone. It suggested that the infectious clones’ virulence is not necessarily correlated with the symptom severity.</p> Sung Oh Chang Won Choi ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-04-17 2019-04-17 7 1 12 20 10.21467/ias.7.1.12-20 Toxicological Safety Assessment of Molluscicides Against Non-target Aquatic Biota; Colisa fasciatus <p>Plants <em>Terminalia arjuna</em> and <em>Tamarindus indica</em> are known to have a significant molluscicidal potential to control the population of vector snails. Since the molluscicides are considered an emerging pollutant and are frequently detected in surface water bodies and found to be a great threat for aquatic biota. Hence, the main objective of this research is to critically evaluate the ectotoxicological and chronic effect of plant-derived molluscicides on other aquatic biotas. With these references this study deals with the safety measurement of molluscicides arjnolic acid, saponin and procynadine from <em>T. arjuna</em> and <em>T. Indica </em>against the fish <em>Colisa fasciatus</em> which share the same habitat with snails. The result of toxicity experiment reveals that fishes showed no mortality against 24h LC<sub>90</sub> (against <em>L. acuminata </em>and<em> I. exustus</em>) up to 96h exposure duration. The enzyme bioassays of these molluscicides on the nervous tissue of fish showed no significant effect on key enzymes Acetylcholinesterase, acid and alkaline phosphates activity in comparison to control group of fishes. These results indicated that the application of arjunolic acid, saponin, and procynadine derive from plant <em>T. arjuna </em>and<em> T. indica</em> at its maximum concentration (24h LC<sub>90</sub> of <em>L. acuminata</em> and <em>I. exustus</em>) and exposure duration (96h) did not cause any mortality or treatment-related enzymes inactivity in fishes. The study conclusively proved the ecotoxicological and chronic safety of plant-derived molluscicides arjunolic acid, saponin, and procynadine on non-target animals in the aquatic environment.</p> Neelam Soni Vinay Kumar Singh ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-04-30 2019-04-30 7 1 21 27 Functional Characterisation of a Calmodulin-Binding Receptor-Like Cytoplasmic Kinase (GmCBRLCK1) in Glycine max (L.) Merr. using Bioinformatic Tools <p>An understanding of the function of signaling genes/proteins in soybean is vital for comprehending plant growth and development. The objective of this study was to functionally characterize a calmodulin-binding receptor-like cytoplasmic kinase gene (Glyma.13G161700) from <em>Glycine max</em>. Bioinformatic analyses were performed using for the characterisation. Expression profile of gene in soybean tissue was assessed using Genevisible. Functional genomic analysis for gene expression regulation and co-expression analysis was evaluated using micro array data from Affymetrix Soybean Genome Array platform in GENEVESTIGATOR v3. Gene ontology functional predictions were determined through FFPred 2.0. The results showed that the calmodulin-binding receptor-like cytoplasmic kinase gene is predominantly expressed in the pericycle and syncytium in root seedlings and in the palisade cells of the legume. The gene was shown to be highly upregulated in response to root exposure to <em>Phytophthora sojae</em>, <em>Heterodera glycines</em> and aluminium stress. Co-expressed genes during the legume development showed Pearson’s correlation co-efficient of 1 to Glyma.13G161700. Gene ontology predictions confirmed the signaling and metabolic functions of the kinase gene and its primary locations are the membrane and endomembrane system of <em>G</em>. <em>max</em>. The study therefore suggests that <em>Glycine max</em> calmodulin-binding receptor-like cytoplasmic kinase (GmCBRLCK1) is involved in receptor signaling pathways to enhance seedling tolerance to root infection by <em>P</em>. <em>sojae</em>, <em>H. glycines</em>, and to aluminium stress. The kinase gene is also involved in regulation of metabolic processes that aid in growth and development of soybean seedling.</p> Enetia Disberia Bobo Pias Munosiyei Percy Jinga Emmanuel Zingoni ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-05-24 2019-05-24 7 1 38 47 Factors Influencing Midwifery Clinical Decision-making <p>Clinical decision-making is an important element in midwifery practice. Midwives are required to have a sound knowledge to manage complications during childbirth. Any misjudgement by a midwife may lead to adverse birth outcomes. The aim of this paper is to review factors that contribute to clinical decision-making of midwives. This was achieved by reviewing published research articles. Studies have shown that shortage of human and material resources, poor skill mix, absence of mentors and lack of autonomy are some of the contributing factors that may affect midwives’ decision-making.</p> Betty Kambeja Sakala ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-05-10 2019-05-10 7 1 28 32 Post Bioremediation Effect on Soil Fertility using Substrate from Livestock Byproduct <p>The purpose of this study was to examine data obtained from soil physicochemical properties before and after initiation of bioremediation using liquid manure as a nutrient source. Bioremediation was initiated by stimulating autochthonous microorganisms present in soil rhizosphere while remediation was determined by soil physicochemical status after nutrient amendment. Rhizomes of turmeric were planted in soil treated with liquid manure and control in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replications. Data generated from soil physicochemical parameters both in the laboratory and field were analyzed before and after treatment/cultivation. The study showed that treated soil increased total nitrogen, organic matter, organic carbon, exchangeable potassium, cation exchange capacity (CEC), calcium and exchangeable phosphorus. On the other hand, it decreased soil acidity, pH and exchangeable aluminium. There were no observable differences in magnesium concentration. Soil texture had more sand and a corresponding decline in silt and clay. Findings in this study revealed that soil that benefitted from treatment option is statistically significant at 0.05<em> p</em>-level.</p> Joseph Ugochukwu Ekenwosu ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-05-24 2019-05-24 7 1 33 37