International Annals of Science <p align="justify"><a title="Click for Journal homepage" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><img style="float: right; padding-left: 15px; padding-right: 5px;" src="/public/site/images/aabahishti/IAS_cover_page.jpg" alt="IAS"></a> International Annals of science is an open access, peer-reviewed, online multidisciplinary journal dedicated to publishing high-quality research in all areas of the Computer, Mathematics, Physical, Chemical, Biological, and Earth Sciences. Papers published by the journal represent important advances of significance within each field by AIJR Publisher.<br>International Annals of Science is registered with CrossRef with doi:10.21467/ias and ISSN of this journal is &nbsp;2456-7132 [online].</p> AIJR Publisher en-US International Annals of Science 2456-7132 <div id="copyrightNotice"> <p>Author(s) retains full copyright of their article and grants non-exclusive publishing right to&nbsp;International Annals of Science&nbsp;and its publisher “<a title="AIJR Publisher homepage" href="" target="_blank">AIJR</a>&nbsp;(India)”. Author(s) can archive pre-print, post-print and published version/PDF to any open access, institutional repository, social media or personal website provided that Published source must be acknowledged with citation and link to publisher version.<br>Click&nbsp;<a title="Copyright Policy" href="" target="_blank">here</a>&nbsp;for more information on Copyright policy<br>Click&nbsp;<a title="Licensing Policy" href="/index.php/ias/about#licensing">here</a>&nbsp;for more information on Licensing policy</p> </div> COVID-19 Pandemic and Research Publications; Necessity of Maintaining Scientific Integrity <p>Since the COVID-19 outbreak began in China, scientists and health professionals have rushed to understand and mitigate the threat, however, its root cause, spreading characteristic, effective way to control as well as therapeutical approaches are still a mystery and matter of scientific debate. In an effort to fight against this disease scientists also rushed for a global collaborative approach by sharing their findings so that others can use known information. In view of such emergency scientific journals took steps to expedite the peer review process for coronavirus-related manuscripts which poses another challenge of scientific integrity. Community attention on integrity brought another concern where many authors argue against the idea of peer-review exception which compromises high standard for quality in the name of crisis situations. In the space of eight months, the research community’s response to COVID-19 gives rise to a large volume of paper submission which required rigorous reviewing and of course huge amount of time however, it’s also time which demands fastest publication of the latest finding. To balance in scientific integrity of scholarly journal as well as crisis demand to expedite dissemination of known knowledge, AIJR took a unique approach for COVID-19 related manuscript submission to <em>Int. Ann. Sci</em>. only through AIJR preprints invitation. In this approach author shall post COVID-19 related articles to AIJR Preprints and if it seems suitable for further peer-reviewing, author will get invited to submit to <em>Int. Ann Sci. </em>otherwise author will be advised to improve the article with an updated version. In this way the latest finding can get disseminated immediately as a preprint and after submission to the journal it can undergo standard reviewing process to maintain the scientific integrity. Although invitation through preprints serves both purpose of fastest dissemination and the journal can maintain scientific integrity, preprint may have its own risk for sharing non-reviewed version which may include dishonest findings. The only way to make preprints a great place for accelerated publishing and minimize associated risk of sharing non-reviewed findings is that the authors, readers, and most importantly media reporters act in a vigilant manner by following the sharing responsibility and guidelines adhering to the highest ethical standards.</p> D Qaiser Copyright (c) 2020 D Qaiser 2020-09-04 2020-09-04 10 1 1 6 10.21467/ias.10.1.1-6 Strategies of Plant Biotechnology to Meet the Increasing Demand of Food and Nutrition in India <p>A groundbreaking application of biotechnology research during the recent past has been improvement of crop health and production. India being one of the most rapidly developing countries with an enormous population and remarkable biodiversity, plant biotechnology promises significant potential to contribute to characterization and conservation of the biodiversity, increasing its usefulness. However, India’s green revolution was noted to be insufficient to feed the country's teeming millions. Therefore, novel approaches in crop biotechnology had to be aimed at ensuring better productivity and quality of cultivars. This paper provides a comprehensive review of research undertaken mainly in the last couple of decades along with potential strategies in plant biotechnology focusing on specific grain and seed crops of key agricultural as well as dietary importance to meet the growing demand of food and nutrition in India, while also proposing potential application of relevant global research findings in the Indian context. The analysis would help address the ever-increasing worldwide socio-economic necessity for greater food security, particularly during times of crisis such as the recent Coronavirus Infectious Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic.</p> Santanu De Copyright (c) 2020 Santanu De 2020-09-04 2020-09-04 10 1 7 15 10.21467/ias.10.1.7-15 COVID-19 Pathophysiology and Clinical Effects on Multiple Organ Systems - A Narrative Review <p>Patients with comorbidities including Hypertension (HTN), Diabetes Mellitus (DM), Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD), Asthma, Obesity, Cardiovascular Disease (CVD), Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD), and those who are immunocompromised are prone to more severe complications of COVID-19 and a higher rate of hospitalizations. In the United States, around 94% of COVID-19 deaths had an average of 2.6 additional conditions or causes per death. In a summary report published by the Chinese Centre for Disease Control and Prevention of 72,314 cases, case-fatality rate was elevated among those with preexisting comorbid conditions—10.5% for cardiovascular disease, 7.3% for diabetes, 6.3% for chronic respiratory disease, 6.0% for HTN, and 5.6% for cancer. The COVID-19 pandemic continues to threaten people and healthcare systems globally and therefore the global economy. Currently, there is no cure or vaccine for COVID-19 and there is an urgent need to develop target therapies as we continue to learn more about this novel virus. Without therapeutic interventions, much of how we contain the viral spread is prevention through mitigation strategies (social distancing, face masks, supportive care). Early suspicion of COVID-19 symptoms with radiological and laboratory assessments may play a major role in preventing severity of the COVID-19. With this literature review we aim to provide review of pathophysiology of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) and its clinical effects on multiple organ systems.</p> Kinal Paresh Bhatt Jonathan Quinonez Abhinav Patel Mehrie Patel Abdifitah Mohamed Muhammad Ali Aziz Deepa Venkataramani Fatema Zohora Namrata Hange Dana Awad Isha Mehta Paz Ines M Domingo Nadia Jamil Shravika Reddy Kandi Sindhu Thevuthasan Uzzam Ahmed Khawaja Dhanya Baskaran LaShathan Banks George Michel Marcos Sanchez-Gonzalez Copyright (c) 2020 Kinal Paresh Bhatt, Jonathan Quinonez, Abhinav Patel, Mehrie Patel, Abdifitah Mohamed, Muhammad Ali Aziz, Deepa Venkataramani, Fatema Zohora, Namrata Hange, Dana Awad, Isha Mehta, Paz Ines M Domingo, Nadia Jamil, Shravika Reddy Kandi, Sindhu Thevuthasan, Uzzam Ahmed Khawaja, Dhanya Baskaran, LaShanthan Banks, George Michel, Marcos Sanchez-Gonzalez 2021-06-12 2021-06-12 10 1 151 167 10.21467/ias.10.1.151-167 The 14-3-3 (YWHA) Proteins in Mammalian Reproduction <p>The 14-3-3 (YWHA or Tyrosine 3-Monooxygenase/Tryptophan 5-Monooxygenase Activation protein) is an acidic and homologous protein family involved in regulation of key biological events including cell cycle, signal transduction and development. They are highly conserved and are expressed ubiquitously across a wide variety of species ranging from plants to animals. Seven isoforms of 14-3-3 exist in mammals, which are encoded by separate genes, have tissue-specific, developmental stage-specific as well as isoform-specific presence and consequences. It is known that these proteins play significant roles in mitosis of mammalian cells and meiosis of amphibians. However, their effects on development and functioning of mammalian gonads and germ cells are not entirely delineated. This paper, for the first time, provides a comprehensive review of the comparative expression, localization/distribution, binding interactions, and importance of the 14-3-3 proteins in gametogenesis and reproduction among multiple female and male mammalian species. Thorough understanding of these proteins in oogenesis and spermatogenesis would help elucidate the physiological basis of fertility in mammals, including humans.</p> Santanu De Copyright (c) 2020 Santanu De 2020-09-04 2020-09-04 10 1 52 59 10.21467/ias.10.1.52-59 Brain Evidence in Nursing Research: EEG Methodology <p>This aim of the mini-review paper is to introduction the bio-physiologic measures of resting state EEG for nursing scientist. Article specifically addresses the emotional domain as clarified by concepts of brain evidence-based nursing research reviewed that the emotion aspect documented a strong link to frontal brain alpha activities asymmetry. Extensive nursing research has been performed in emotional, behavioral, and/or psychological matters for healthy and unhealthy populations. Evidence-based nursing can transform the way that data is used to improve health and healthcare. One core role of nursing practice is to promote healthy behaviors. Previous researches have shown out that the brain is the main ambassador of behavioral change. The electroencephalogram (EEG) is an efficient tool to study brain-behavior relations. Evidences show that frontal alpha asymmetry is an important marker suggests that EEG is beneficial for assessment emotional capacities and appraises nursing efficiency. The basic resting alpha frontal asymmetry provides a reliable instrument in conducting nursing researches in order to strengthen the quality of nursing. Furthermore, we provide a viewpoint to show progress in the novel research issue probably for clinical applications. To integrate biological measures in order to gain highly accurate and precise advantages of EEG and beneficial assessment of the emotional capacities are suggested. Nursing promotes healthy behaviors including emotional health. Human behavior changes originate in the brain. EEG enables objective and biological insights into the cognitive process. As a foundation, the neuroscience research requires profound knowledge and tools to analyze bio-physiological data. Creating Cross-disciplinary cooperation must be inevitable alliances to advance nursing research.</p> Yueh-O Chuang Ren-Jen Hwang Copyright (c) 2020 Yueh-O Chuang, Ren-Jen Hwang 2020-11-01 2020-11-01 10 1 98 101 10.21467/ias.10.1.98-101 Virtual Reality Support for Dental Treatment Premedication <p>The objective is to short review the current state of the art of virtual reality medical application in term of minimal invasive dentistry. An outline of the most important aspects of virtual reality has been created, and a subsequent literature search for articles related was conducted. The current state of the art of virtual reality includes a variety of applications, among others premedication, analgesics, anaesthetics plays an important role in informatics medicine. There is a growing consensus regarding the need to develop knowledge and possible introduce virtual reality as a non-pharmacological support for dental treatment.</p> Tomasz ('Tomi') Kupka Copyright (c) 2020 Tomasz ('Tomi') Kupka 2021-01-19 2021-01-19 10 1 102 106 10.21467/ias.10.1.102-106 Mechanism of Organic Odor Generation from Thermophilically Digested Biosolids <p>In anticipation to generate more stabilized biosolids, thermophilic anaerobic digestion systems are widely used to destroy greater sludge organics thus making them less odorous. In this study, single-stage thermophilic (at 55 ℃) and mesophilic (at 37 ℃) anaerobic digesters were studied to compare organic removal efficiencies and sulfur-based odor generation from their biosolids. Although the thermophilic system removed about 9% more volatile solids than the mesophilic system, about 55 times more odorous organic sulfur compounds were measured from dewatered thermophilic biosolids. Different methanogenic species were found to be responsible for malodorous dewatered biosolids from the thermophilic anaerobic digester.</p> Jongmin Kim Copyright (c) 2020 Jongmin kim 2020-09-04 2020-09-04 10 1 60 66 10.21467/ias.10.1.60-66 Semen Analysis and Morphological Study of Two Subsequent Generations of Dietary Protein Deficient Sprague Dawley Rats <p>Adequate supply of dietary protein in regular diet is an important element of a proper nutritional status as it functions in the regulation of metabolic profiles signaling the reproductive axis. Reports have highlighted the association of the amount of protein in the diet to the functioning of hypothalamic-pituitary-testis axis, however its intragenerational effects are yet to be adequately explored. The study aims to analyze the effect of protein deficient diet on parameters associated with male infertility from one generation to another. Female rats in four (4) groups (n=10) were fed different ration of protein in their diet (PD) as formulated: 21%PD, 10%PD, 5%PD and control diet (rat chow), through gestation and lactation to first and second generations, while the male offspring sustained on the maternal diet after weaning were used for analysis. Sperm morphology and motility were evaluated using a light microscope and a computer-assisted semen analysis<strong>.</strong> The percentage of motile spermatozoa, morphological characteristics and histology in the deficient groups (5%, 10%PD) appeared normal as compared to control in the first generation, showing an adaptive response while second generation was presented with significantly altered fertility parameters of the male offspring. It is suggested that in a deficiency status especially at the critical phase of development, certain deleterious effects which may be adaptive or phenotypic can serve to reduce the fertility efficiency in the male offspring at both F<sub>1</sub> and F<sub>2</sub>- generation.</p> Nosarieme Omoregie Abey Osaretin Albert Taiwo Ebuehi Copyright (c) 2020 Nosarieme Omoregie Abey, Osaretin Albert Taiwo Ebuehi 2020-10-22 2020-10-22 10 1 85 91 10.21467/ias.10.1.85-91 Technical Approach to Local Therapy in Ischemic Stroke <p>Local therapy is an increasingly achievable alternative for neurological diseases such as stroke. For its use to be a reality, it is still necessary to develop techniques that facilitate its administration and maximize its effect. In this short communication, we present a technique of intracerebral therapy administration. This procedure requires the use a navigation-guided stereotactic surgical technique to inject the treatment into the therapeutic target, even in areas that are difficult to access or extremely large. Such a method is not only fast and feasible, but it can be a standardized technique for multicentre clinical trials.</p> Fernando José Rascón Ramirez Juan Antonio Barcia Cristina Nombela Leyre Sanchez Sanchez de Rojas Copyright (c) 2020 Fernando José Rascón Ramirez, Juan Antonio Barcia, Cristina Nombela, Leyre Sanchez Sanchez de Rojas 2020-11-01 2020-11-01 10 1 92 97 10.21467/ias.10.1.92-97 Characterization of Biodiesel from Alkaline Refinement of Waste Cooking Oil <p>The waste cooking oil (WCO) is a low cost and prospective feedstock with no competitive food uses for biodiesel production, but the yield and quality have been greatly affected by impurities. This study examined the chemical and fuel quality of biodiesel of both WCO and alkaline treated WCO. The transesterification process using the alkaline treated cooking oil (ACO) methanol and sodium hydroxide as catalyst followed the Association of Officials of Analytical Chemists (AOAC) techniques. The pH values between 7.27 and 8.65 were found for alkaline treated cooking methyl ester (ACME), alkaline treated cooking oil (ACO) and WCO. Density of ACME, ACO and WCO varied between 0.89 and 0.93 (g/cm<sup>3</sup>). The fatty acids found were benzoic acid (3.77%), octanoic acid (8.35%), and palmitic acid (75.02%) – most abundant. Comparison of results with the American Standard for Testing Materials (ASTM) values showed quality enhancements of ACO in physicochemical and fuel properties over WCO. The biodiesels from ACO have enhanced emulsification, fuel and free fatty acids qualities over the WCO, showing the refinement methodology of WCO has overall improvement in the biodiesel purity and quality against the previous conflicting reports.</p> Aliru Olajide Mustapha Amina Abiola Adebisi Bukola Opeyemi Olanipekun Copyright (c) 2020 Aliru Olajide Mustapha, Amina Abiola Adebisi, Bukola Opeyemi Olanipekun 2020-09-04 2020-09-04 10 1 16 24 10.21467/ias.10.1.16-24 Maximum Flow Evacuation Planning Problem with Non-Conservation Flow Constraint <p class="Abstract">The optimization model of the maximum flow evacuation planning problem efficiently sends a maximum number of evacuees along with the routes of their transshipment from the disastrous zone, the source, to the safe zone, the sink, over a given time horizon. The limitation of the problem with the flow conservation constraint at the intermediate nodes is that even one more evacuee cannot be sent out from the source, if the evacuee cannot reach the sink. However, evacuators must attempt to send out as many evacuees as possible to safer places despite the sink. There may be relatively safe places in between the source and the sink. The limitation is due to the flow conservation constraint. In this paper, we remodel the problem with non-conservation flow constraint and propose an efficient algorithm. With this approach one can send as many evacuees as in the flow conservation case from the source to the sink. Moreover, a maximum number of evacuees can also be sent to the relatively safe places in between the source and the sink. The routes of their transshipment can also be identified.</p> Phanindra Prasad Bhandari Shree Ram Khadka Copyright (c) 2020 Phanindra Prasad Bhandari, Shree Ram Khadka 2020-09-04 2020-09-04 10 1 25 32 10.21467/ias.10.1.25-32 Identification of Sand Flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) Collected from Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Endemic Focus in the Ho Municipality, Ghana <p>Leishmaniasis, is a vector-borne disease transmitted to humans through the bite of infected female sand flies. Active and continuous monitoring of the sand fly is an important aspect of disease control. Thus, the correct identification of its vectors is paramount in this regard. Objective: The study was conducted to morphologically and molecularly identify female sand fly species in a cutaneous leishmaniasis endemic focus collected in three villages in the Ho Municipality of the Volta region. CDC light traps and sticky paper traps was used for the collection of the sand flies. The morphologically identified sand flies was molecularly confirmed by running PCR with the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase gene subunit I (COI) primers and DNA sequenced. A total of 537 sand flies was collected, made up of 363 females and 174 males. Eleven different species of sand flies was morphologically identified – one Phlebotomus species and ten Sergentomyia species. The PCR amplified products showed bands of molecular weights 658 base pairs for the primers. The molecular identification using the 658-bp fragment of the (COI) gene was congruent with the morphological identification.</p> Edna Dzifa Doe Godwin Kwakye-Nuako Seth Offei Addo Alexander Egyir-Yawson Copyright (c) 2020 Edna Dzifa Doe, Godwin Kwakye-Nuako, Seth Offei Addo, Alexander Egyir-Yawson 2020-09-04 2020-09-04 10 1 33 44 10.21467/ias.10.1.33-44 Larvicidal Activity of Inorganic Salts Against Anopheles Stephensi and Culex Quinquefasciatus <p>Mosquitoes transmit serious human diseases, causing millions of deaths worldwide every year and the development of resistance to chemical insecticides resulting in rebounding vectorial capacity. In this study, the larvicidal bioassays for activities of aqueous solutions of weak acid [(NH<sub>4</sub>)<sub>2</sub>SO<sub>4</sub> and NaH<sub>2</sub>PO<sub>4</sub>] and weak base (Na<sub>2</sub>CO<sub>3</sub> and NaHCO<sub>3</sub>) inorganic salts against late instar larvae of disease vectors Anopheles stephensi and Culex quinquefasciatus were carried out under laboratory settings. The four inorganic salts showed varied levels of larvicidal activities after 24 h-exposure on Anopheles stephensi and Culex quinquefasciatus larvae in a dose-dependent fashion. However, the larvicidal activities were relatively higher in Na<sub>2</sub>CO<sub>3 </sub>(LC50 = 3162 and 447 ppm) and NaHCO<sub>3 </sub>(LC50 = 5623 and 398 ppm) solutions as compared to those in (NH<sub>4</sub>)<sub>2</sub>SO<sub>4 </sub>(LC50 = 7943 and 1995 ppm) and NaH<sub>2</sub>PO<sub>4 </sub>(LC50 = 7943 and 7120 ppm). The present study showed that the inorganic salts Na<sub>2</sub>CO<sub>3</sub>, NaHCO<sub>3</sub>, (NH<sub>4</sub>)<sub>2</sub>SO<sub>4</sub> and NaH<sub>2</sub>PO<sub>4</sub> could serve as potential larviciding agents considering their low toxicity. Therefore, this study provides a first report on the larvicidal activity of the inorganic salts on mosquito larvae of disease vectors.</p> Francis Zakanda Nsimba Thierry Lengu Bobanga Pius Zakayi Kabututu Jean-Marie Iyamba Liesse Copyright (c) 2020 Francis Zakanda Nsimba, Thierry Lengu Bobanga, Pius Zakayi Kabututu, Jean-Marie Iyamba Liesse 2020-09-04 2020-09-04 10 1 45 51 10.21467/ias.10.1.45-51 A Simple PCR Assay for Discrimination of Dengue Vectors from Nsukka LGA, Nigeria <p>Mosquitoes of <em>Aedes </em>species are vectors of several arboviral diseases which continue to be a major public health problem in Nigeria. This study among other things, morphologically identified <em>Aedes</em> mosquitoes collected from Nsukka LGA and used an allele specific PCR amplification for discrimination of dengue vectors. Larval sampling, BG-sentinel traps and modified human landing catches were used for mosquito sampling in two selected autonomous communities of Nsukka LGA (Nsukka and Obimo). A total of 124 <em>Aedes</em> mosquitoes consisting of five (5) different species were collected from April to June, 2019 in a cross-sectional study that covered 126 households, under 76 distinct geographical coordinates. Larvae was mainly collected from plastic containers 73% (n=224), metallic containers 14% (n=43), earthen pots 9% (n=29) and used car tyres 3% (n=9), reared to adult stage 69.35% (n=86), and all mosquitoes were identified using standard morphological keys. Five (5) <em>Aedes</em> mosquito species were captured; <em>Aedes aegypti</em> 83(66.94%), <em>Aedes albopictus</em> 33(26.61%), <em>Aedes simpsoni</em> (4.48%), <em>Aedes luteocephalus</em> (≤1%) and <em>Aedes vittatus</em> (≤1%). Nsukka autonomous community had higher species diversity than Obimo. Allele specific amplification confirmed dengue vectors, <em>Aedes aegypti</em> and <em>Aedes albopictus</em> species on a 2% agarose gel. Since the most recent re-emergence of arboviral diseases is closely associated with <em>Aedes </em>species, findings of this study, therefore, give further evidence about the presence of potential arboviral vectors in Nigeria and describe the role of a simple PCR in discriminating some. Further entomological studies should integrate PCR assays in mosquito vector surveillance.</p> Amos Watentena Ikem Chris Okoye Ikechukwu Eugene Onah Onwude Cosmas Ogbonnaya Emmanuel Ogudu Copyright (c) 2020 Amos Watentena, Ikem Chris Okoye, Ikechukwu Eugene Onah, Onwude Cosmas Ogbonnaya, Emmanuel Ogudu 2020-10-05 2020-10-05 10 1 67 77 10.21467/ias.10.1.67-77 Two Alternative Proofs of the Grüss Inequality <p>The classical Grüs inequality has spurred a range of improvements, generalizations, and extensions. In this article, we provide new functional bounds that ultimately lead to two elementary proofs of the inequality that might be of interest. Our results are motivated by the extreme cases where the equality is reached, namely step functions of equal support. Our first proof is based on the standard Cauchy-Schwarz inequality and a simple bound on the variance of a function. Its simplicity would be of particular interest to those who are new to the study of functional inequalities. Our second proof utilizes non-intuitive and novel bounds on functionals defined on L<sup>∞</sup>(0, 1). As a result, we provide a detailed and new insight into the nature of the Grüss inequality.</p> Martin Tchernookov Copyright (c) 2020 Martin Tchernookov 2020-10-21 2020-10-21 10 1 78 84 10.21467/ias.10.1.78-84 The Potential of Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) Peels as an Organic Fertilizer <p>Cassava peels are in large quantity and practically of no economic value in many developing nations such as Cameroon, where cassava is widely consumed and processed far beyond other crops. Cassava peels might be used in those countries to face declining soil fertility and soil erosion. This study aimed to evaluate the composting of cassava peels without any additional material and the effect of the increasing quantity of cassava peels in the bin during the process of composting and to assess some physico-chemical qualities, biological properties and the phytotoxicity of the produced composts. After three months of composting the produced composts (C1; C2; C3 and C4) had a dark brown color, relatively dry, uniform structure and its texture were similar to the soil's texture. Their electrical conductivity was in between 1499 and 1924 µ<sup>-1</sup>.Their pH (6.50-6.73), was slightly acid, great for the cultivation of sweet pepper. They were rich in minerals (Mg; Ca; K+; and Na+) and poor in heavy metals such as (Cu, Zn and Mn). The composts C/N ratios were between 13.15 to 13.42. The produced composts showed a germination index and the rate of germintion greater than 80% at all concentrations, indicating the absence of phytotoxicity. The increased amounts of cassava peels did not undermine the process of composting and positively impact fungi and bacteria populations. Indeed, cassava peels are good subtracts that can be used to produce stable organic fertilizers, with higher liming potential, nutrient content, and less hazardous material which could be used in farms to remediate declining soil fertility and to promote sustainable agriculture.</p> Onguene Dieudonne Julienne Nguefack Joseph Blaise Dongmo Lekagne Charles Dakole Daboy Ghislaine Ndonkeu Mangoumou Copyright (c) 2020 Onguene Dieudonne, Julienne Nguefack, Joseph Blaise Dongmo Lekagne, Charles Dakole Daboy, Ghislaine Ndonkeu Mangoumou 2021-01-19 2021-01-19 10 1 107 117 Accuracy Analysis on Solution of Initial Value Problems of Ordinary Differential Equations for Some Numerical Methods with Different Step Sizes <p>In this article, three numerical methods namely Euler’s, Modified Euler, and Runge-Kutta method have been discussed, to solve the initial value problem of ordinary differential equations. The main goal of this research paper is to find out the accurate results of the initial value problem (IVP) of ordinary differential equations (ODE) by applying the proposed methods. To achieve this goal, solutions of some IVPs of ODEs have been done with the different step sizes by using the proposed three methods, and solutions for each step size are analyzed very sharply. To ensure the accuracy of the proposed methods and to determine the accurate results, numerical solutions are compared with the exact solutions. It is observed that numerical solutions are best fitted with exact solutions when the taken step size is very much small. Consequently, all the proposed three methods are quite efficient and accurate for solving the IVPs of ODEs. Error estimation plays a significant role in the establishment of a comparison among the proposed three methods. On the subject of accuracy and efficiency, comparison is successfully implemented among the proposed three methods.</p> Mohammad Asif Arefin Biswajit Gain Rezaul Karim Copyright (c) 2020 Mohammad Asif Arefin, Biswajit Gain, Rezaul Karim 2021-03-07 2021-03-07 10 1 118 133 10.21467/ias.10.1.118-133 Allelopathic Potentiality of Euphorbia hypericifolia L. on Germination and Seedling Development of Sympatric Crops and Weeds <p><em>Euphorbia hypericifolia</em>, a non-native herbaceous weedy plant was found to often form disproportionately dense, virtually monospecific stands in the Mount Bambouto Caldera, Cameroon. This observation is within the purview of allelopathy and is attributed to the release of botanicals by non native plants that harm naïve native flora, creating significant problems for agriculture and the environment. We investigated if the invasiveness of <em>E. hypericifolia</em> could be explained by its allelopathic potential at varying concentrations on five indicator plants. The results showed that the leaf, root and stem aqueous extracts of the plant exhibited significant inhibitory effects on the germination, radicle and plumule lengths of <em>Biden pilosa, Amaranthus spinosus, Lactuca sativa, Zea mays</em> and <em>Lycopersicon esculentum</em> at 100 % by 75.0, 69.4, 95.6, 28.0 and 97.2 %, respectively. The leaf extract was the most potent, while the stem extract was the least. The extract of <em>E. hypericifolia</em> was stimulatory (Lower concentrations) and inhibitory to the germination and growth of the test plants and its effect was concentration-dependent with the roots of target plants being more sensitive to the extracts than the plumule. <em>L. esculentum</em> was the most susceptible species to E. hypericifolia extracts while <em>Z. mays</em> was more tolerant than any of the tested plants. Results of total chlorophyll pigment accretion showed declining levels of chlorophyll detected in the leaves of tomato transplants cultivated in the augmented soils with rising dosage of the leaf residue of <em>E. hypericifolia.</em> <em>B. pilosa</em> planted on <em>E. hypericifolia</em> infested soil (EIS) showed very poor emergence recording only 7.5 % after 6 weeks as compared to 83.0 % in non <em>E. hypericifolia</em> infested soil (NIS). Qualitative phytochemical screening indicates <em>E. hypericifolia</em> is rich in secondary metabolites including alkaloids, glycosides, flavonoids, phenolics, tanins, Steriods and saponins. Acetone was the best extractant amongst the solvents used. This study has proven the allelopathic potential of <em>E. hypericifolia</em> and revealed some allelochemicals that may be exploited for the development of bioherbicides and plant growth promotion from natural products.</p> Lawrence Monah Ndam Abwe Mercy Ngone Raymond Ndip Nkongho Augustina Genla Nwana Fongod Yoshiharu Fujii Copyright (c) 2020 Lawrence Monah Ndam, Abwe Mercy Ngone, Raymond Ndip Nkongho, Augustina Genla Nwana Fongod, Yoshiharu Fujii 2021-04-18 2021-04-18 10 1 134 150 10.21467/ias.10.1.134-150