International Annals of Science <p align="justify"><a title="Click for Journal homepage" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><img style="float: right; padding-left: 15px; padding-right: 5px;" src="/public/site/images/aabahishti/IAS_cover_page.jpg" alt="IAS"></a> International Annals of science is an open access, peer-reviewed, online multidisciplinary journal dedicated to publishing high-quality research in all areas of the Computer, Mathematics, Physical, Chemical, Biological, and Earth Sciences. Papers published by the journal represent important advances of significance within each field by AIJR Publisher.<br>International Annals of Science is registered with CrossRef with doi:10.21467/ias and ISSN of this journal is &nbsp;2456-7132 [online].</p> AIJR Publisher en-US International Annals of Science 2456-7132 <div id="copyrightNotice"> <p>Author(s) retains full copyright of their article and grants non-exclusive publishing right to&nbsp;International Annals of Science&nbsp;and its publisher “<a title="AIJR Publisher homepage" href="" target="_blank">AIJR</a>&nbsp;(India)”. Author(s) can archive pre-print, post-print and published version/PDF to any open access, institutional repository, social media or personal website provided that Published source must be acknowledged with citation and link to publisher version.<br>Click&nbsp;<a title="Copyright Policy" href="" target="_blank">here</a>&nbsp;for more information on Copyright policy<br>Click&nbsp;<a title="Licensing Policy" href="/index.php/ias/about#licensing">here</a>&nbsp;for more information on Licensing policy</p> </div> Conformable Derivatives in Laplace Equation and Fractional Fourier Series Solution <p>In this paper the solution of conformable Laplace equation, \frac{\partial^{\alpha}u(x,y)}{\partial x^{\alpha}}+ \frac{\partial^{\alpha}u(x,y)}{\partial y^{\alpha}}=0, where 1 &lt; α ≤ 2 has been deduced by using fractional fourier series and separation of variables method. For special cases α =2 (Laplace's equation), α=1.9, and α=1.8 conformable fractional fourier coefficients have been calculated. To calculate coefficients, integrals are of type "conformable fractional integral".</p> Ronak Pashaei Mohammad Sadegh Asgari Amir Pishkoo ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-11-07 2019-11-07 9 1 1 7 10.21467/ias.9.1.1-7 Haulm Forage Value of Lentil Varieties in Central Ethiopia <p>The major livestock feed next to natural pasture in central highlands of Ethiopia is cereal crop residue; however, supplementation with additional nutritional entities is most often recommended.&nbsp; The present study aims to examine the nutritive value of lentil haulm and how this value varies among the varieties and locations. For this, 80gms of haulm samples of Alemaya, Derash and local lentil varieties were collected with four replications from Bishoftu, Akaki, and Chefe-Donsa from on farm trial sites of Ethiopian institute of agricultural research. To test for the variation in haulm nutritional values among the varieties, two-way ANOVA was employed. The results showed that the interaction of variety and location had significant effect on crude protein (CP), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), metabolizable energy (ME) and in vitro organic matter digestibility (IVOMD) (P&lt;0.05). Here, CP content of lentil haulm was higher for a local variety when compared with the two commercial varieties. The haulm yield (4.38t/ha) and haulm dry matter yield (3.97 t DM/ha) were higher for Derash when compared with that of the local variety (P&lt;0.05). Overall, the present finding denoted that although in some cases the lentil haulm nutritional values and yields vary among varieties and were dependent on growing locations, it can be observed to have optimum feeding values to supplement livestock feed with the cereal crop residues in central Ethiopia.</p> Asemahegn Mersha Hailegiorgis Debissa Lemessa ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-11-14 2019-11-14 9 1 8 15 10.21467/ias.9.1.8-15 Heavy Metal Resistance by Endophytic Bacteria Isolated from Guava (Psidium Guajava) and Mango (Mangifera Indica) Leaves <p>Heavy metal resistant bacteria are widespread in nature and their application in decontamination of polluted ecosystems is promising. In this study, ability of endophytic bacteria isolated from <em>Psidium guajava</em> (Guava) and<em> Mangifera indica</em> (Mango) for heavy metal resistance was assessed. Leaves samples form the two plants were collected and processed according to the standard laboratory practices. Heavy metals were analyzed using Atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Endophytic bacteria were isolated and identified using morphological and biochemical characteristics; heavy metal resistance was determined by plate dilution method. Heavy metal analysis revealed that the leaves samples contained considerable quantities of Manganese (Mn), Lead (Pb) and Cadmium (Cd) ranging from 1.21±1.6 mg/Kg (for Cd in Guava leaves) to 116.58±1.3 mg/Kg (for Mn in Mango leaves). A total of six bacterial species were isolated from both of the plants leaves (3 each). Guava endophytes were identified as <em>Streptococcus </em>sp<em>, Staphylococcus albus </em>and<em> Staphylococcus seiuri </em>whereas <em>Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus xylulose </em>and <em>Staphylococcus intermedius </em>were from Mango leaves. The identified isolates were tested for ability to resist heavy metals <em>in-vitro</em> and were capable of showing different patterns of resistance to MnCl<sub>2</sub>, PbCl<sub>2</sub> and CdCl<sub>2</sub>.&nbsp; All the endophytes were highly resistant to PbCl<sub>2</sub> followed by MnCl<sub>2</sub> but susceptible to CdCl<sub>2</sub>. The ability of plants and bacterial endophytes understudy to tolerate or resist heavy metals is a good indication of their phytoremediation potentials and thus, should be harnessed.</p> Maryam Lami Riskuwa-Shehu Haruna Yahaya Ismail Udem Joshua Josiah Ijah ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-11-16 2019-11-16 9 1 16 23 10.21467/ias.9.1.16-23 Prevalence of Intestinal Helminth Infections of Stray Dogs of Public Health Significance in Lagos Metropolis, Nigeria <p>Globally, stray dogs have been a major source of zoonoses such as cutaneous larval migrans, visceral larval migrans and hydatidosis. These dogs are recognized as being a major public health problem where their population is unchecked. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of intestinal helminth parasites of stray dogs in Lagos metropolis. Stools of 96 stray dogs were examined microscopically for ova of these parasites using centrifugation flotation method. Four species of intestinal helminths were identified. The overall prevalence of helminths infection was 61.4%, with <em>Ancylostoma caninum </em>having a prevalence of 62.5%, <em>Toxocara canis </em>20.8%<em>, Dipylidium caninum </em>18.7% and <em>Strongyloides stercoralis </em>2.0%. <em>T. canis</em> had the highest worm burden of 1,250 egg per gram (EPG) while <em>S. stercoralis</em> had the least (100 EPG). The areas with the most helminth infections were Yaba (n=12,<em> X̄</em><em>=1.58, SD=0.793</em>), Agege (n=11,<em> X̄</em><em>=1.73, SD=0.786</em>) and Ikotun (n=11,<em> X̄</em><em>=1.45, SD=0.820</em>). <em>S. stercoralis </em>was only found in samples obtained from Mushin and Ikorodu. Most of the stool samples obtained from this study had mixed infections, 83.3% were infected with three helminth species, 8.3% were infected with four helminth species and none had double infection. Mushin had the most mixed infections (n=4, <em>X̄</em><em>=1.900, SD=1.101</em>) while Obalende had the least (n=1, <em>X̄</em><em>=1.000, SD=0.000</em>). Most of the intestinal helminth parasites identified in this study are zoonotic and thus pose a public health problem. Environmental factors seem to influence the health condition of these dogs, thus concerted efforts should be made to reduce the growing population of stray dogs on the street of Lagos.</p> Olatunji Ayodeji Abulude ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-11-16 2019-11-16 9 1 24 32 10.21467/ias.9.1.24-32 Outdoor Air Quality and Antibiogram Characteristics of Bacterial Isolates of Akure City Abattoirs, Nigeria <p>Air sampling of Onyearugbulem and FUTA abattoirs was carried out to evaluate their quality. Air sampling was done using the open-settling method on general and selective agar media of the gutter, sleeping bench, slaughtering floor dumpsite, slaughtering table and roof of the abattoirs.&nbsp; Using standard methods, Presumptive identification of the bacterial isolates was carried out. An array of ten (10) conventional antibiotics was used to assay the antibiotic susceptibility characteristics of the bacterial isolates. Multiple antibiotic sensitivity index (MARI) was determined for isolated bacteria. At Onyearugbulem abattoir, the total <em>Escherichia coli</em> count ranged from 3.6×10 cfu/ml from the gutter and slaughtering table to 6.5×10 cfu/ml from the slaughtering floor, while the total bacterial count ranged from 1.34×10<sup>2</sup> cfu/ml from dumpsite to 2.55×10<sup>2</sup> cfu/ml from the gutter, the total coliform count ranged from 2.8× 10 cfu/ml from slaughtering floor to 4.1×10 cfu/ml from sleeping bench. Several bacteria were presumptively isolated. These include: <em>Micrococcus </em>sp.<em>, Bacillus </em>sp.<em>, Staphylococcus aureus,</em> <em>Escherichia coli, Proteus </em>sp.,<em> Enterobacter aerogenes </em>and<em> Aeromonas </em>sp. Ciprofloxacin (10 µg) had an inhibitory effect on all the Gram positive bacterial isolates with the highest inhibitory activity on <em>S. aureus </em>at 24.00 mm, and the Gram negative bacteria with the highest inhibitory activity on <em>E. coli </em>at 21.00 mm. <em>Micrococcus </em>sp. had the highest MARI of 0.8. These findings reveal the presence of multiple-antibiotic resistant bacteria in Onyearugbulem and FUTA abattoirs’ atmosphere. There is therefore need for routine environmental sanitation of the slaughterhouses.</p> Olubukola Olayemi Olusola-makinde ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-11-16 2019-11-16 9 1 33 40 10.21467/ias.9.1.33-40 He’s Multiple-Scale Solution for the Three-dimensional Nonlinear KH Instability of Rotating Magnetic Fluids <p>This paper elucidates a trend in solving nonlinear&nbsp;oscillators of the rotating Kelvin-Helmholtz instability. The system is constituted by the vertical&nbsp;flux&nbsp;or the horizontal&nbsp;flux. He’s multiple-scales perturbation&nbsp;methodology&nbsp;has been applied&nbsp;and therefore the&nbsp;system is&nbsp;represented&nbsp;by a generalized homotopy equation. This approach&nbsp;ends up in a periodic&nbsp;answer&nbsp;to a&nbsp;nonlinear&nbsp;oscillator&nbsp;with high nonlinearity. The cubic-quintic&nbsp;nonlinear&nbsp;Duffing equation is&nbsp;obligatory&nbsp;as a condition to uniformly answer. This equation&nbsp;is employed&nbsp;to derive&nbsp;the stability&nbsp;criteria. The transition curves&nbsp;are plotted to investigate the stability image.&nbsp;It's&nbsp;shown that the angular&nbsp;velocity suppresses the instability. The tangential&nbsp;flux&nbsp;plays a&nbsp;helpful&nbsp;role, whereas&nbsp;the vertical field&nbsp;encompasses a destabilizing influence. Within the existence of the rotation, the velocity ratio reduces stability configuration.</p> Yusry Osman El-Dib Amal A Mady ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-12-06 2019-12-06 9 1 52 69 10.21467/ias.9.1.52-69 Anti-nutritional Composition, Heavy Metal Content and Mineral Bioavailability of Red Tree Vine (Leea guineensis G. Don) Fruits <p><em>Leea guineensis </em>G. Don is an evergreen shrub that has been reported to be important in Nigeria due to its medicinal and nutritional uses. However, there is paucity of documented information on the anti-nutritional composition, heavy metal content and mineral bioavailability of <em>L. guineensis </em>whole fruits<em>.</em> Hence, this study investigated the essential minerals, heavy metals and anti-nutritional compositions of <em>L. guineensis</em> whole fruits with a view to assess the quantity, bioavailability of the mineral elements and ultimately the safety of the fruits using standard analytical procedures. The results of phytochemical screening confirmed presence of secondary metabolites in varying quantities. The anti-nutrient contents (mg/100g) were phytates (29530); oxalates (510); saponins (10333); alkaloids (30533) and tannins (53.3). The results of mineral analysis revealed that <em>L. guineensis</em> fruits were rich in essential minerals (mg/100g) like, potassium (493); calcium (200); magnesium (103.3); phosphorus (9.9); zinc (8.5); manganese (5.5) and iron (5.0). The heavy metals concentrations were in the order lead&gt;chromium&gt;nickel&gt;cobalt&gt;cadmium. The values obtained were within the WHO permissible limits for heavy metals in medicinal plants. Meanwhile, the results of molar ratio phytates: Ca (8.97); oxalates: Ca (0.7978) and Ca.phytates:Zn (0.64) were below the suggested critical values indicating the bioavailability of calcium to be high. While phytates: Fe (501.06) and phytates: Zn (348.22) were higher than the critical values indicating poor bioavailability of Fe and Zn. The study therefore suggests that <em>L. guineensis </em>fruits are a good source of phyto-minerals which can be harnessed for nutritional purpose. Also, the anti-nutrient contents in <em>L. guineensis </em>whole fruits should be reduced to a safe level through processing methods (soaking, de-pulping or fermentation) in order to achieve its optimum nutritional or medicinal use.</p> Musbau Bayonle Olaniyii Samsideen Olabiyi Rufai ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-12-08 2019-12-08 9 1 70 79 10.21467/ias.9.1.70-79 Differential Expression Analysis on Schizophrenia Dataset Suggests Pseudogene RNU6-505P as under Selective Pressure <p>Schizophrenia is one of the 15 leading causes of disability worldwide. About&nbsp;1% of the global population has schizophrenia, with 10% of premature mortality chance. Schizophrenia is therefore associated with significant health, social and economic concerns. In this context, thalamus and striatum areas play&nbsp;important roles as much in schizophrenia as processing information before reaching the conscious thought: step happening soon in the creativity action. Creativity is defined by psychological scientists as the generation of ideas or products that are both original and valuable. Creativity relies on imagination and this fundamental human ability remains understudied in comparison to other important psychological phenomena. It is natural to ask whether the gene expression profiling of samples from schizophrenic patients could highlight the activity of some genes&nbsp;specific to humans. Microarray analysis of the dataset GSE25673 revealed&nbsp;that the pseudogene RNU6-505P is expressed&nbsp;differentially&nbsp;in schizophrenic samples and&nbsp;correlates to CYP26A1, ARHGAP18, TSPAN12, HEY2 and TMEM132A genes. Ontological analysis showed that the&nbsp;RNU6-505P pseudogene is involved in brain development and certain neurological pathologies. Evolutionary analysis showed&nbsp;that the AGA 3-nucleotide sequence of RNU6-505P&nbsp;has been under positive selective pressure. Finally, the 1-nucleotide mutation prediction test revealed&nbsp;that variations on the AGA nucleotides could be fatal to the RNA structure of the sequence. We conclude that differential expression of the RNU6-505P pseudogene can be valid to diagnose schizophrenia&nbsp;and&nbsp;the RNU6-505P pseudogene may have a relevant function in the cerebral development and in the divergent evolution of humans from apes.</p> Emilio Mastriani Alexey V Rakov Shu-Lin Liu ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-01-25 2020-01-25 9 1 86 99 10.21467/ias.9.1.86-99 Evaluation of Wood Ash as Additive for Cow Manure Composting <p>This study was conducted to produce high-quality compost using both cow manure and wood ash that can specifically be used to increase the fertility of soils in tropical regions. Increased proportions of wood ash were co-composted with cow manure. During composting, the composts produced presented the classical composting temperature curve and attain a thermophilic composting phase (about 60 <sup>o</sup>C). After 117 days of composting, the produced composts (CMA 0%; CMA 5%; CMA 10% and CMA15%) had a C/N ratio between 16 and 30, and their pH, was basic, indicating maturity.&nbsp; They were rich in minerals (Mg; Ca; K+; and Na+) and poor in heavy metals (Zn; Cu and Pb). Wood ash addition raise the fungal communities except for CMA 0% and did not impair significantly on bacteria communities; however, addition of high amounts of wood ash could reduce the metabolism of the microbial communities including cellulase activity that showed a proportional decrease according to the added amount except for CMA 15%. The composts showed a germination index greater than 80% at all concentrations, indicating the absence of phytotoxicity. Therefore, co-composting of cow manure with wood ash (&lt;15%) allowed to obtain a good organic fertilizer with higher liming potential, nutrient content, and less hazardous material which could be used in farms to remediate acidity of tropical soils</p> Blaise Pascal Bougnom Onguene Dieudonne Alain Martial Sontsa-Donhoung ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-03-09 2020-03-09 9 1 100 110 10.21467/ias.9.1.100-110 Ovicidal and Larvicidal Activities of Ethanolic Leaf Extracts of Three Botanicals Against the Malaria Vector - Anopheles Gambiae <p>Malaria, transmitted by <em>Anopheles gambiae</em>, has been a major public health concern in Africa. Chemicals used in the control of <em>A. gambiae</em> have caused a lot of havoc in the environment and to non-target organisms. More so, a high rate of resistance by these mosquitoes has been recorded. This study evaluated the ovicidal and larvicidal activities of ethanolic leaf extracts of <em>Duranta erecta</em>, <em>Tridax procumbens</em> and <em>Pennisetum purpureum</em> against <em>A. gambiae</em>. Phytochemical analysis of these plants revealed the presence of tannins, saponins, alkanoids, flavonoids, glycosides and anthroquinone. Ground dry leaves of each plant material were concentrated in 7 litres of 95% ethanol for 72 hours followed by filtration and evaporation. <em>D. erecta, T. procumbens </em>and<em> P. purpureum</em> yielded 617.2g, 598.3g and 552g of extracts respectively. The WHO standard for mosquito bioassay was adopted and concentrations 40, 100, 140 and 200 parts per million (PPM) were tested against 20 eggs and 25 larvae using emersion method. The hatching rate and % larval mortality of the extracts were recorded in which a concentration dependent increase was observed. High ovicidal activity (low egg hatchability) was recorded in <em>D. erecta</em> (LC<sub>50 </sub>-10.037 PPM) followed by <em>P. purpureum </em>and<em> T. procumbens</em> with LC<sub>50</sub> values of 17.380 and 39.198 respectively. The highest larvicidal activity was observed in <em>D. erecta</em> (LC<sub>50</sub> -76.943 PPM) compared to <em>P. purpureum</em> and <em>T. procumbens</em> (LC<sub>50</sub> - 213.410 PPM and 214.217 PPM). Evidently, <em>D. erecta</em> ethanolic leaf extracts showed the best efficacy in the control of <em>A. gambiae</em> in this study. <em>D. erecta</em> is an environmentally friendly alternative in reducing the use of chemicals for mosquito control.</p> Funmilayo Bukola Egunjobi Ikem Chris Okoye ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-03-10 2020-03-10 9 1 111 121 10.21467/ias.9.1.111-121 Comparing the Neuroprotective Effects of Aqueous and Methanolic Extracts of Vernonia Amygdalina on the Cerebellum of Adult Male Wistar Rats <p>The solvent of extraction determines the type and amount of phytochemicals extractible from a plant material. Reports have shown that numerous African herbs are rich is potent phytochemicals which have been used in folkloric and orthodox medicine in the prevention and treatment of ailments. This research is geared towards comparing the neuroprotective potency of the aqueous and methanolic extracts of <em>Vernonia amygdalina</em> on the cerebellum of mercury chloride intoxicated Wistar rats. Thirty adult male Wistar rats were divided into 6 groups of 5 rats each. Group A was the negative control and had food and water only. Group B was the positive control and was exposed to mercury chloride without treatment. Groups C1 and C2 received 200mg/kg bw of aqueous and methanolic extracts respectively while groups D1 and D2 received 400mg/kg bw of aqueous and methanolic extracts of <em>Vernonia amygdalina</em> respectively. Result of phytochemical analysis shows that water extracted more flavonoids while methanol extracted more phenols. The results of antioxidant studies show that the methanolic extract conferred more protection against oxidative stress than the aqueous extract. Histological results show that aqueous extract conferred more protection than the methanolic extract. We therefore conclude from our report that both the aqueous and methanolic extracts of <em>Vernonia amygdalina</em> confer neuroprotection on the cerebellum of Wistar rats.</p> Ugochukwu Samuel Aguwa Somadina M Okeke Chijioke M Okeke Chinyere E Eze Benedict Nzube Obinwa Morris Izuogu Felix Ogbo Ovie Darlington Nnamdi Onyejike Doris Kasarachi Ogbuokiri Damian N Ezejindu ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-07-01 2020-07-01 9 1 145 159 10.21467/ias.9.1.145-159 Effective and Efficient LDA+ELM Model for Supervised Classification of Brain Tumor Types Using 2D MRI Scans <p>Application of machine learning in multiclass classification of brain tumor types has contributed to the development of computer aided diagnosis (CAD) system that can potentially enhance accuracy and speed up diagnosis of the disease. LDA+ELM model with different activation functions were investigated to achieve the optimum performances in terms of accuracy, Kappa statistic, sensitivity, precision, F-measure, training time and test time.&nbsp; We also proposed a user-friendly GUI in characterizing brain tumor types using MR images. First, a total of 3064 slices of CE T1-weighted brain MR images with ground truth were downloaded from a free online database. The manually segmented tumor region was augmented and then undergo several feature extraction techniques. All the feature descriptors obtained were then concatenated, followed by LDA dimensionality approach. Performance of different number of LDA features and ELM activation functions were investigated by repeated training and test. The ELM output of training data for each class was used to fit GMM and these probabilistic models used to estimate posterior probabilities of test data. LDA+ELM model with 5 LDA feature input, utilizing sigmoid function as hidden nodes activation functions achieves the best generalization performance with accuracy of 98.92% and corresponding F-scores for meningioma, glioma and pituitary tumor of 97.81%, 99.1% and 99.5% respectively. The proposed method (LDA+ELM) model performs better compared to other previous works using the same dataset and performing the same classification task.</p> Lim Jia Qi Norma Alias ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-07-02 2020-07-02 9 1 160 173 10.21467/ias.9.1.160-173 Assessment of Water Quality Index and Irrigation Indices in Ese Odo Area of Ondo State, Southwestern Nigerian <p>An assessment of the ground water quality was carried out in Ese Odo local government area of Ondo State, southwestern Nigeria. The study was aimed at examining the various samples of ground water and the quality of the ground water as it relates to drinking and irrigation purposes. Forty-Five ground water samples were taken from boreholes and open wells and analyzed for physical, chemical and biological properties. The results were compared with World Health Organization standards. The usefulness of these parameters in predicting ground water quality characteristics were studied and water quality index was determined from these parameters. In assessing the water for irrigation uses, indices such as percent (%Na), sodium adsorption ratio (SAR), residual sodium carbonate (RSC), permeability index (PI), Kelly’s ratio (KR), magnesium ratio (MR), equivalent salinity concentration (ESC) and Wilcox plot were used.&nbsp;&nbsp; The result obtained shows that the water studied has a mean value of 2.8 NTU for turbidity, 7.3 for pH, 294 μS/cm for electrical conductivity, 52mg/L for total dissolved solids, temperature 28.3°C, total hardness 41 mg/L, chloride 38.3 mg/L, calcium 15.8 mg/L, 5.64 mg/L for magnesium, nitrate 1.47mg/L, sulphate 51.7 mg/L, bicarbonate 15mg/L. Zinc, iron, manganese have mean values less than 1mg/L. The results indicated all the physicochemical parameters are within the recommended levels set by World Health Organization (WHO). Although traces of heavy metal and mineral oil contaminations are observed some of the samples. All the samples are plotted on the “Excellent irrigation class” of Wilcox plot with good/excellent irrigation indices. Consequently, the groundwater in the study area is good and suitable for drinking and irrigation purposes.</p> Falowo Olusola Olumuyiwa Ojo Olajumoke Olayemi ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-07-03 2020-07-03 9 1 174 187 10.21467/ias.9.1.174-187 Combining Ability and Heterosis in Diallel Analysis of Maize (Zea mays L.) Lines <p>A sound breeding program for maize improvement is very important to meet the demands of the growing population. Therefore, combining ability and heterosis were studied in a 4 x 4 full diallel cross in maize for growth attributes, yield and its contributing traits. Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with four replicates was used to study the general combining ability of parents, specific combining ability of F1s (including reciprocals) and heterosis of the F1s over commercial check variety on selected agronomic characters. Genotype was highly significant for all the traits studied. The combining abilities (GCA and SCA) and reciprocal mean squares were highly significant for most studied characters. The ratio of GCA/SCA was not less than unity for studied traits excepted for days to anthesis and ear height. The results indicated that the additive genetic effects were more important and played major role in studied traits. Thus, results revealed GCA effects for the parental lines (PL). Where ‘PL2’ was excellent combiner for number of tassels and cob circumference and ‘PL3’ was good combiner for days to silking and grain yield (t.h<sup>-1</sup>). While ‘PL4’ for short height. Majority of the F1s from the GCA effects showed high SCA effects. This F1 (PL2 x PL3) performed best amongst. However, several reciprocals were not desirable. Heterosis estimation was carried out using a commercial check, Oba super II. When commercial check was used, the percent heterosis especially on grain yield varied from -8.89 to 22.62%. Among the twelve F1s, nine of the crosses exhibited significant positive heterosis for grain yield (t.h<sup>-1</sup>). Those F1s that showed significant positive and/or negative desirable traits for SCA effects and significant positive heterosis could be used for varietal development in maize breeding. And conservation of those parents that exhibited high GCA effects be considered as well.</p> Francis Chukwuma Onejeme Emmanuel Ogbonna Okporie Chinedu Emmanuel Eze ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-07-07 2020-07-07 9 1 188 200 10.21467/ias.9.1.188-200 Physics for Surgeons - Part 4: Energy Devices in Surgery <p>Modern surgery has advanced astoundingly in the last century owing to the advent of number of energy devices in the operation room. Surgeon in the past were only using electric current –monopolar diathermy to burn and couterize the tissue, the present day surgeons are equiped with a number of more advanced energy devices e.g. LASER, ultrasonic vibrating shears, radiofrequency, shockwaves, argon beam coagulator and advanced bipolar electric energy with hybrid systems and light energy of different wavelengths. In the present paper, we have explained the physical principles involved in the commonly used energy devices in the operation theatre.</p> Darakhshan Qaiser Piyush Ranjan Kamal Kataria Anita Dhar Anurag Srivastava ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-04-13 2020-04-13 9 1 122 131 10.21467/ias.9.1.122-131 Dengue Reemergence: The Challenges Ahead <p class="Abstract">The global expansion of competent Dengue vectors in tropical and sub-tropical areas, and the favorable conditions for disease transmission demonstrates a critical public health challenge ahead. This review provides an insight into some key underlying gaps while attempting to suggest alternatives towards the containment and hence eradication of Dengue. The non-existence of an efficient vaccine against all DENV serotypes and the rapid global emergence of COVID-19, are undermining the complexities of vaccine development and disrupting global health efforts for the management of Dengue respectively. The development of sustainable DENV control programs now requires a multifaceted approach involving the integration of the recently developed multi-platforms application in entomological surveillance, community awareness, modelling, vaccination, vector control, and also ensuring that Dengue control efforts are not hampered or neglected during COVID-19 pandemic. This approach requires active collaboration and communication of scientists from various disciplines, economic support from funding agencies and institutions as well as support from the communities, governments and public health organizations.</p> Amos Watentena Ikem Chris Okoye Ikechukwu Eugene Onah ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-06-08 2020-06-08 9 1 132 140 10.21467/ias.9.1.132-140 The 14-3-3 (YWHA) Proteins in Signalling and Development of the Fruit Fly, Drosophila melanogaster <p>The 14-3-3 (YWHA or Tyrosine 3-Monooxygenase/Tryptophan 5-Monooxygenase Activation proteins) are a family of highly conserved, homologous proteins critical to diverse cellular events including cell cycle, signal transduction and embryonic development.&nbsp; Various species-specific isoforms of 14-3-3 exist, encoded by separate genes.&nbsp; They are expressed in a wide variety of organisms ranging from plants to animals, including the fruit fly or <em>Drosophila melanogaster</em>.&nbsp; <em>Drosophila </em>is one of the most universally accepted model systems to study complex cellular mechanisms of signalling and development.&nbsp; However, regulation of these processes in fruit flies by the 14-3-3 proteins have not been entirely understood.&nbsp; This mini review encapsulates the expression, distribution, interactions and regulatory roles of the 14-3-3 proteins in <em>Drosophila</em>.&nbsp; The analysis would help to elucidate some of the molecular bases of key cell-signalling mechanisms and development.</p> Santanu De ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-12-08 2019-12-08 9 1 80 85 10.21467/ias.9.1.80-85 Facial Palsy and Contemporary Reanimation Surgery: A Short Review <p>The primary purpose of this mini-review article is to introduce modern issues of reanimation surgeries in patients with facial palsies. Modern methods of reanimation surgeries are discussed for mentioning patients` benefits, and their more satisfactions and hopeful horizons for the future of such cases with facial palsies. Facial paralysis, associated to implementing new reanimation surgery techniques, is presenting new advanced methods of facial nerve palsy reforms, through reanimation surgeries. Facial palsy, which occur by a diversity of reasons, need to be evaluated for their etiologies and prepare a proper surgical plan for their reconstructions. Stroke, trauma, congenital, neoplasia, neurological, immunological, viral infections, and psychological reasons, are some potential causes of patients with facial palsies. Brief reviews were done, based on recent evidences` results in reanimation surgery practices. Due to any of above cited reasons, patients with facial palsies get physically and mentally disturbed and are willing to search ways, for solving their facial distressing problems. Consequently, mentioned patients are eagerly searching means to receive new available promotions to improve their facial palsies. In concluding, patients who undergo reanimation surgeries, if good results of their operations obtained, they will be motivated in gaining self-confidence, self-care, self-respect and therefore getting a cumulative their effective social bond, and raising their quality of life, after reanimation operations.</p> Hashem Shemshadi ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-06-27 2020-06-27 9 1 141 144 10.21467/ias.9.1.141-144 Isolation and Activity Determination of Enzyme Phosphatase Secreted by Aspergillus niger <p>The use of enzymes on industrial scale saves a lot of energy and avoids pollution, thus holding a promise for green and economically sustainable alternative strategies in industrial transformations.&nbsp; Generally, the fungi <em>Aspergillus niger </em>secretes enzymes which can be used in different industries. Thus, coming up with these enzymes in large amounts will definitely result in reduced costs encountered in importing them for industrial use. &nbsp;This study focussed on isolation and activity determination of an enzyme phosphatase secreted by <em>Aspergillus niger</em>.&nbsp; This enzyme can be of great importance in molecular biology industries, particularly for recombinant DNA technology.&nbsp; For this study, pure cultures of <em>Aspergillus niger</em> were used.&nbsp; <em>Aspergillus niger</em> was resuscitated on potato dextrose agar and then subcultured in Adam’s medium, a medium specific for the production of phosphatase.&nbsp; Cells were centrifuged and the filtrate was collected whilst the residue was discarded. The filtrate was expected to contain the crude enzyme phosphatase since <em>Aspergillus niger </em>secretes the extracellular enzyme into the medium. Disodium phenyl phosphate was used as a substrate for the determination of the phosphatase activity. The enzyme activity was determined spectrophotometrically by reading absorbance of phenol formed in the presence of enzyme and the substrate. The concentration of phenol liberated was then used to calculate the enzyme activity expressed in King Armstrong Units (KAU). &nbsp;Further work on enzyme activity determination was done by varying enzyme and substrate concentrations.&nbsp; Results showed that the isolated alkaline phosphatase had activity of 4.0 KAU and 4.5 KAU at 25 ºC and 37 ºC respectively. Acidic phosphatase had activity of 5 KAU and 7 KAU at 25 ºC and 37 ºC respectively. Rate of activity increased upon increasing enzyme concentration and substrate.&nbsp; Thus, <em>Aspergillus niger</em> produces the enzyme phosphatase, however, there is need to induce the production of these enzymes for industrial use.</p> Tafadzwa Zharare Rumbidzai Mangoyi ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-11-16 2019-11-16 9 1 41 45 10.21467/ias.9.1.41-45 Effects of Four Different Food Additives on the Oxidative Stress Markers of Wistar Albino Rats <p>This work investigated the effects of food additives on the oxidative stress markers and liver marker enzymes. Food additives are products added to the basic food stuff with an aim of improving its flavor, aspect, texture, color, taste, and value. Thirty (30) Wistar rats were divided into five groups of six rats each. Group A received a daily dose of distillated water and normal rat pellet, Group B, C, D and E received 20 mg/kg body of Aspartame, Sodium Benzoate, Sodium nitrite and sodium sulfite respectively. The duration for exposure of these animals to food additives was 30 days and the groups were observed daily for general conditions. At the end of feeding the animals, blood samples were collected and analyzed. The result of the analysis showed that ALT significantly (p&lt;0.05) increased with sodium nitrite and sodium sulfite while ALP increased significantly (p&lt;0.05) with sodium sulphite. The oxidative stress biomarker, catalase showed a significant increase with sodium benzoate and sodium sulphite. The results revealed that the food additives are injurious to the animals. The toxicity of the food additives studied at 20 mg/kg are in the order of Sodium nitrite &gt; Sodium benzoate &gt; Sodium sulphite &gt; Aspartame.</p> Ifemeje J C Ezeonyemalu U E Chukwuebuka Egbuna Olisah M C Ifemeje M O ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-11-24 2019-11-24 9 1 46 51 10.21467/ias.9.1.46-51