International Annals of Science <p align="justify"><a title="Click for Journal homepage" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><img style="float: right; padding-left: 15px; padding-right: 5px;" src="/public/site/images/aabahishti/IAS_cover_page.jpg" alt="IAS"></a> International Annals of science is an open access, peer-reviewed, online multidisciplinary journal dedicated to publishing high-quality research in all areas of the Computer, Mathematics, Physical, Chemical, Biological, and Earth Sciences. Papers published by the journal represent important advances of significance within each field by AIJR Publisher.<br>International Annals of Science is registered with CrossRef with doi:10.21467/ias and ISSN of this journal is &nbsp;2456-7132 [online].</p> AIJR Publisher en-US International Annals of Science 2456-7132 <div id="copyrightNotice"> <p>Author(s) retains full copyright of their article and grants non-exclusive publishing right to&nbsp;International Annals of Science&nbsp;and its publisher “<a title="AIJR Publisher homepage" href="" target="_blank">AIJR</a>&nbsp;(India)”. Author(s) can archive pre-print, post-print and published version/PDF to any open access, institutional repository, social media or personal website provided that Published source must be acknowledged with citation and link to publisher version.<br>Click&nbsp;<a title="Copyright Policy" href="" target="_blank">here</a>&nbsp;for more information on Copyright policy<br>Click&nbsp;<a title="Licensing Policy" href="/index.php/ias/about#licensing">here</a>&nbsp;for more information on Licensing policy</p> </div> Identification of Novel Key Biomarkers in Simpson-Golabi-Behmel Syndrome (SGBS) <p>The Simpson-Golabi-Behmel Syndrome (SGBS) or overgrowth Syndrome is an uncommon genetic X-linked disorder highlighted by macrosomia, renal defects, cardiac weaknesses and skeletal abnormalities. The purpose of the work was to classify the functional nsSNPs of GPC3 to serve as genetic biomarkers for overgrowth syndrome. The raw data of <em>GPC3</em> gene were retrieved from dbSNP database and used to examine the most damaging effect using eight functional analysis tools, while we used I-mutant and MUPro to examine the effect of SNPs on GPC3 protein structure; The 3D structure of GPC3 protein is not found in the PDB, so RaptorX was used to create a 3D structural prototype to visualize the amino acids alterations by UCSF Chimera; For biophysical validation we used project HOPE; Lastly we run conservational analysis by BioEdit and Consurf web server respectively. Our results revealed three novel missense mutations (rs1460413167, rs1295603457 and rs757475450) that are that are more likely to be responsible for disturbance in the function and structure of GPC3. This work provides new insight into the molecular basis of overgrowth Syndrome by evidence from bioinformatics analysis. Three novel missense mutations (rs757475450, rs1295603457 and rs1460413167) are more likely to be responsible for disturbance in the function and structure of GPC3; therefore, they may be assisting as genetic biomarkers for overgrowth syndrome. As well as these SNPs can be used for the larger population-based studies of overgrowth syndrome.</p> Mujahed I. Mustafa Abdelrahman H. Abdelmoneim Nafisa M. Elfadol Naseem S. Murshed Zainab O. Mohammed Mohamed A. Hassan ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-07-21 2019-07-21 8 1 1 11 10.21467/ias.8.1.1-11 Antibacterial Activity of Melia azedarach Leaves against Salmonella typhi and Streptococcus pneumoniae <p>Antimicrobial drug resistance is increasingly becoming an important global problem. &nbsp;Among the major causes for concern is drug resistant <em>Streptococcus</em> <em>pneumoniae</em> and <em>Salmonella typhi</em>, which have become resistant to at least one antibiotic. &nbsp;This challenge has lead scientists to investigate plants as potential sources of antimicrobial agents since they have been used to treat diseases long before the discovery of antibiotics. &nbsp;In Zimbabwe, typhoid is a leading cause of mortality and morbidity due to poor sanitation and poor treatment regimes. &nbsp;Traditionalists are using <em>Melia azedarach</em> leaves for the treatment of diarrhea, a typhoid symptom. &nbsp;Thus, this study focused on validating the use of <em>M. azedarach</em> leaves for medicinal purposes by determining their antibacterial activity against <em>S. pneumoniae</em> and <em>S.typhi</em>, the causative agent of typhoid fever. &nbsp;<em>Melia azedarach</em> leaf constituents were extracted using ethanol, ethylacetate, hexane, dichloromethane and methanol. &nbsp;Their antibacterial activities were assessed using the agar disk diffusion, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) assays.&nbsp; Haemolysis assay was carried out to determine the toxicity of the potent extracts. &nbsp;The ethanol and hexane extracts showed antibacterial activity against <em>S. typhi</em> whilst dichloromethane and hexane extracts showed antibacterial activity against <em>S. pneumoniae. </em>&nbsp;Minimum inhibitory concentrations for ethanol and hexane against <em>S. typhi</em> were &lt; 1 µg/ml and 15.6 µg/ml respectively, whilst their minimum bactericidal concentrations were 31.25 µg/ml and 250 µg/ml. &nbsp;The MICs for dichloromethane and hexane extracts against <em>S. pneumoniae</em> were 31.25 µg/ml and 62.5 µg/ml respectively, whilst their MBCs were 31.25 µg/ml and 125 µg/ml. &nbsp;The extracts ethanol, hexane and dichloromethane had haemolytic activity of 63 %, 62 % and 59 % respectively. &nbsp;Therefore, these results validate the use of <em>M. azedarach </em>leaves for medicinal purposes.&nbsp; However, these leaves may be toxic to human consumption, thus there is need for further investigation on their toxicity in <em>vivo. </em></p> Charlene Mwale Kuda Nelia Makunike Rumbidzai Mangoyi ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-08-30 2019-08-30 8 1 47 53 10.21467/ias.8.1.47-53 Phytochemical, Proximate and Elemental Composition of Tithonia diversifolia (Hemsley) A. Gray leaves <p>In recent times, medicinal plants are being greatly used ethnomedicinally for the management and treatment of diseases and health conditions. One of such medicinal plants is <em>Tithonia diversifolia</em>. This study aimed at determining the phytochemical, elemental and proximate content of the powdered plant part to help infer what is responsible for the reported therapeutic characteristics of the plant as well as determine the quality, purity and safety profile of the plant. Leaves of <em>T.diversifolia</em> were subjected to phytochemical, proximate and mineral screening using standard laboratory procedures. Qualitative phytochemical observation revealed the presence of Tannins, saponins, flavonoids and terpenoids. Crude Protein content was the highest with 27.69% followed by Crude Fibre (14.89%), Ash (13.86%), Moisture Content (10.92%) and the least value 1.14% for Fat. Magnesium (Mg) content was highest with 6712.50mg/kg which is 22, 35, 122 &amp; 144 times higher than the content of Iron (Fe) (291.5mg/kg), Manganese (Mn) (191.0mg/kg), Zinc (Zn) (54.9mg/kg) and Copper (Cu) (15.1mg/kg). However, elements (heavy metals) Lead (Pb), Cadmium (Cd), Chromium (Cr) and Cobalt (Co) were not detected. Results obtained in the study is indicative of a potential drug substitute which can be used to help manage and treat diseases due to the phytochemicals, nutrients, and minerals present in them. Also, the safety indices of this plant part have been established, thus, information obtained from the study can serve as a reference standard for the plant monograph.</p> Titilayo Oyebola Omolola ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-08-30 2019-08-30 8 1 54 61 10.21467/ias.8.1.54-61 Phytochemical Status of Different Solvent Extracts of Anthocleista djalonensis A. Chev Leaves <p>The choice of suitable solvent is essential in the extraction of much needed bioactive phytochemicals present in medicinal plants. This study assessed the phytochemical status of four solvents (methanol, hexane, ethylacetate and aqueous) extracts of <em>Anthocleista djalonensis</em>, leaves of the plants were extracted with the solvents by cold maceration for three days; screening and quantitative determination of saponin, alkaloid, tannin, cardiac glycosides, flavonoids phenols and terpenoids was done using standard methods. Phytochemical screening indicates the presence of all the phytocompound in the methanol extract, while other extracts shows variation in the availability of different phytochemicals, quantitative results shows alkaloid ranged from 1.79-18.90 mg/100g, flavonoids: 2.54-10.53 mg/100g, saponin: 2.00-12.23 mg/100g, tannin: ND-4.83 mg/100g, phenol: ND-6.65 mg/100g, cardiac glycoside: ND-2.08 mg/100g, and terpenoids: ND-1.98 mg/100g; significant difference (p&lt;0.05) exist in each phytochemicals across the solvents where methanol and the aqueous extracts gave the best extraction efficiency for the phytochemicals. Consequently, the optimum extraction of useful phytochemicals from <em>A. djalonensis</em> could be achieved using either methanol and water.</p> Oluwaseyi Popoola ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-08-30 2019-08-30 8 1 62 69 10.21467/ias.8.1.62-69 Mapping of Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL) Related to Drought Tolerance in Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) Using F2 Population from (KATB1 Χ GLP2) <p>Many of the common bean growing regions around the world are prone to drought stress, making drought the major challenge to production and yield stability in rainfed environments. Mapping of yield-associated loci under drought stress will offer a better understanding of the genetics of drought tolerance to the plant breeders and therefore, will accelerate the selection of drought-tolerant crop varieties through marker-assisted selection (MAS). The current study reports the identification of quantitative trait loci (QTL) linked to physiological, phenological, yield and yield-related traits using 120 F2 population derived from a cross between two common bean genotypes, KAT B1 (drought tolerant) and GLP2 (drought susceptible) evaluated under drought stress and well-watered conditions. The research was conducted at the Agricultural and Mechanization Institute, Machakos, Kenya. The F2 population showed significant variation in traits under drought stress.&nbsp; From the 374 polymorphic SNP markers surveyed, 20 genomic regions were identified for various traits under drought stress, individually explaining 2.6 to 21.3% of phenotypic variation. The number of QTLs identified per trait were: 2-grain/seed yield (GY); 1-number of branches (NBP); 2-stem biomass (SB); 1-leaf biomass (LB); 1-pod biomass (PB); 3-days to flowering; 2-days to maturity (DM); 4- number of pods per plant (NPP); 1-seed weight (SW); 2-stomatal conductance (SMTL) and 1-leaf water potential (LWP). QTLs for number of pods per plant, number of grains/seeds per pod, days to flowering, leaf biomass and stem biomass were found co-locating with QTLs for grain yield on chromosome Pv02 under drought stress treatment. The cumulative effects of these QTLs on chromosomes 2 resulted in higher grain/seed yield. This study has provided information on QTLs in common bean that could be used in selection purposes for grain yield under drought conditions.</p> Charles Kipkoech Langat Omwoyo Ombori Richard Cheruiyot Moses Gathaara David Karanja Philip Leley ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-10-13 2019-10-13 8 1 75 86 Phytochemical Screening and Antioxidant Potential of Selected Nigerian Vegetables <p>Reducing power activities of ten vegetables commonly consumed in Katsina State, Nigeria have been assessed with the view of establishing their antioxidant capacities. Preliminary, the phytochemicals of the individual plants were screened, and it was found that various constituents were present. In particular, flavonoids and anthraquinones were found in <em>Ficus glumosa</em> which also appeared to demonstrate the best reducing power activity (4.898 at 25 mg/L).</p> Yusuf Hassan Magaji Ilu Barde ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-07-21 2019-07-21 8 1 12 16 10.21467/ias.8.1.12-16 Application of Genetic Algorithm in Common Optimization Problems <p>Use of non-deterministic algorithms for solving multi-variable optimization problems is widely used nowadays. Genetic Algorithm belongs to a group of stochastic biomimicry algorithms, it allows us to achieve optimal or near-optimal results in large optimization problems in exceptionally short time (compared to standard optimization methods). Major advantage of Genetic Algorithm is the ability to fuse genes, to mutate and do selection based on fitness parameter. These methods protect us from being trapped in local optima (Most of deterministic algorithms are prone to getting stuck on local optima). In this paper we experimentally show the upper hand of Genetic Algorithms compared to other traditional optimization methods by solving complex optimization problem.</p> Nika Topuria Omar Kikvidze ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-07-21 2019-07-21 8 1 17 21 10.21467/ias.8.1.17-21 Comparative Studies on the Susceptibility of Three Tubers of Dioscorea Species to Dry Rot in Anyigba, Kogi State <p>Various yam species are cultivated but white yam (<em>Dioscorea rotundata </em>Poir.), water yam (<em>Dioscorea alata L.</em>) and yellow yam (<em>Dioscorea cayenensis </em>Lam.) are among the most cultivated in Nigeria. The Susceptibility of three tubers of <em>Dioscorea</em> species (<em>D. rotundata, D. alata</em> and <em>D. cayenensis</em>) to dry rot pathogens was investigated. Isolation was made from rotted tuber tissues, followed by pathogenicity test and identification of isolates; two fungal species <em>Aspergillus niger</em> and <em>Rhizopus</em> <em>stolonifer </em>were isolated and identified as the major fungi causing yam tuber dry rot in the study area. There is significant difference (P&lt;0.05) in the susceptibility of the various <em>Discorea</em> tuber species studied to rot caused by <em>Aspergillus niger</em> [<em>D. rotundata </em>(20mm), <em>D. alata</em> (11mm) and <em>D. cayenensis</em> (3.5mm)] and&nbsp; <em>Rhizopus&nbsp; stolonifer</em> [ <em>D. rotundata </em>(17.5mm), <em>D. alata</em> (10mm) and <em>D. cayenensis</em> (2mm)]. The phytochemical contents of the three tubers of <em>Dioscorea</em> species examined also varied significantly, with the bioactive substances of <em>D. cayenensis</em> and <em>D. alata</em> relatively higher when compared to <em>D. rotundata</em>. Therefore, this research reveals that three metabolites; Saponin, Flavonoid and Tanin constitute the major trait for resistant ability of <em>D. cayanesis</em> and D<em>. alata</em> to dry rot causing pathogen.&nbsp; Therefore, it is necessary that the differences in susceptibility be considered when developing yam barns. Also, researchers should work on genetically improving the susceptible white yam (<em>D. rotundata) </em>which is commonly eaten by millions of Nigerians with a possibility of increasing the quantities of the deficient phytochemicals.</p> Adegboyega Adeniji Apovughaye Taiga M S Ayodele ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-10-05 2019-10-05 8 1 70 74 The Prevalence of Congenital Malaria <p>This study was aimed at highlighting on the prevalence of malaria among pregnant women in Nigeria within the last ten years. The prevalence of congenital malaria in Nigeria varies and it affects every geopolitical zone in Nigeria. This is because Nigeria like other countries in the tropics and subtropics has factors which favour the survival of mosquito. Although the World Health Organization (WHO) recommends the use of insecticide treated nets and effective case management of uncomplicated malaria as a feasible and cost-effective control strategy, Nigeria remains one of the worst affected countries in the world with malaria among pregnant women and neonates. This paper recommends more programs to the menace of this infection among pregnant women and neonates in Nigeria.</p> Etefia Uwem Etefia ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-07-22 2019-07-22 8 1 22 29 10.21467/ias.8.1.22-29 Progression of Treating Alzheimer’s Disease with Stem Cell-based Therapies <p>Alzheimer’s disease is one form of dementia affecting a significant proportion of the population. The etiology of this prevalent disease is currently unknown. It is postulated that AD can be treated by using stem cell-based therapies by replacing the lost neurons in the atrophic regions of the brain. For these novel therapies to be successful several sources of stem cells have been proposed, such as pluripotent stem cells as well as multipotent stem cells. Proof of concept in animal studies have shown that stem cells can grafted into the affected regions or delivered intravenously into affected parts of the brain. These experiments had improved cognition and memory performance in rodents. The promising results seen in animal models have increased interest in conducting clinical trials using the same technique. In the last 5 years, several treatments have reached phase II clinical trials. &nbsp;</p> Jigishu Ahmed Hafizur Rahman ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-07-28 2019-07-28 8 1 38 46 10.21467/ias.8.1.38-46 Survey on Security for WSN based VANET using ECC <p>With the increase in population, there is an increase in the number of car users drastically. Around the world, either millions of people die due to car accidents or they are severely injured by the accident. Most of the accidents occur due to lack of common information the drivers, as the lane change, applying sudden break, traffic congestion, etc, are the causes of accidents. Safety information such as speed limits, road conditions, traffic status, accidents, etc..., are used in some countries, but still more work is to be achieved. Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks (VANET) should be implemented and they should collect and distribute necessary safety information to other vehicles. VANET is a combination of Road Side Units (RSU’s) and On-Board Units (OBU’s). These RSU’s and OBU’s consist of various sensors, which are used to collect various data. The data collected by the sensors on the OBU’s on the vehicles can either be sent to another vehicle or can be displayed to the driver. Similarly, the sensor collects data at the RSU and sends the data to other RSU or depending on its nature and importance, the RSU may even be broadcasted to other vehicles. The main objective is to provide safety to the drivers, the passengers and to the information that is being transmitted between the nodes. However, in some scenarios, VANET’s may not guarantee timely detection of issues or any type of dangerous. We propose a solution by the integration of VANET and WSN to create a hybrid infrastructure with the in inexpensive wireless sensor nodes integrated on RSU’s along the roadside and on the OBU’s in the vehicle. As the new hybrid structure is proposed, there may be challenges that may occur. This article discussed these challenges and solutions to create an efficient and well-organized VANET-WSN Hybrid network.</p> Ravi U Kalkundri Rajashri Khanai Kalkundri Praveen ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-07-22 2019-07-22 8 1 30 37 10.21467/ias.8.1.30-37