International Annals of Science 2019-07-28T09:49:31+00:00 Int. Annals of Science Open Journal Systems <p align="justify"><a title="Click for Journal homepage" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><img style="float: right; padding-left: 15px; padding-right: 5px;" src="/public/site/images/aabahishti/IAS_cover_page.jpg" alt="IAS"></a> International Annals of science is an open access, peer-reviewed, online multidisciplinary journal dedicated to publishing high-quality research in all areas of the Computer, Mathematics, Physical, Chemical, Biological, and Earth Sciences. Papers published by the journal represent important advances of significance within each field by AIJR Publisher.<br>International Annals of Science is registered with CrossRef with doi:10.21467/ias and ISSN of this journal is &nbsp;2456-7132 [online].</p> Identification of Novel Key Biomarkers in Simpson-Golabi-Behmel Syndrome (SGBS) 2019-07-21T14:59:38+00:00 Mujahed I. Mustafa Abdelrahman H. Abdelmoneim Nafisa M. Elfadol Naseem S. Murshed Zainab O. Mohammed Mohamed A. Hassan <p>The Simpson-Golabi-Behmel Syndrome (SGBS) or overgrowth Syndrome is an uncommon genetic X-linked disorder highlighted by macrosomia, renal defects, cardiac weaknesses and skeletal abnormalities. The purpose of the work was to classify the functional nsSNPs of GPC3 to serve as genetic biomarkers for overgrowth syndrome. The raw data of <em>GPC3</em> gene were retrieved from dbSNP database and used to examine the most damaging effect using eight functional analysis tools, while we used I-mutant and MUPro to examine the effect of SNPs on GPC3 protein structure; The 3D structure of GPC3 protein is not found in the PDB, so RaptorX was used to create a 3D structural prototype to visualize the amino acids alterations by UCSF Chimera; For biophysical validation we used project HOPE; Lastly we run conservational analysis by BioEdit and Consurf web server respectively. Our results revealed three novel missense mutations (rs1460413167, rs1295603457 and rs757475450) that are that are more likely to be responsible for disturbance in the function and structure of GPC3. This work provides new insight into the molecular basis of overgrowth Syndrome by evidence from bioinformatics analysis. Three novel missense mutations (rs757475450, rs1295603457 and rs1460413167) are more likely to be responsible for disturbance in the function and structure of GPC3; therefore, they may be assisting as genetic biomarkers for overgrowth syndrome. As well as these SNPs can be used for the larger population-based studies of overgrowth syndrome.</p> 2019-07-21T14:59:17+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Phytochemical Screening and Antioxidant Potential of Selected Nigerian Vegetables 2019-07-21T16:43:25+00:00 Yusuf Hassan Magaji Ilu Barde <p>Reducing power activities of ten vegetables commonly consumed in Katsina State, Nigeria have been assessed with the view of establishing their antioxidant capacities. Preliminary, the phytochemicals of the individual plants were screened, and it was found that various constituents were present. In particular, flavonoids and anthraquinones were found in <em>Ficus glumosa</em> which also appeared to demonstrate the best reducing power activity (4.898 at 25 mg/L).</p> 2019-07-21T16:43:25+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Application of Genetic Algorithm in Common Optimization Problems 2019-07-21T18:27:38+00:00 Nika Topuria Omar Kikvidze <p>Use of non-deterministic algorithms for solving multi-variable optimization problems is widely used nowadays. Genetic Algorithm belongs to a group of stochastic biomimicry algorithms, it allows us to achieve optimal or near-optimal results in large optimization problems in exceptionally short time (compared to standard optimization methods). Major advantage of Genetic Algorithm is the ability to fuse genes, to mutate and do selection based on fitness parameter. These methods protect us from being trapped in local optima (Most of deterministic algorithms are prone to getting stuck on local optima). In this paper we experimentally show the upper hand of Genetic Algorithms compared to other traditional optimization methods by solving complex optimization problem.</p> 2019-07-21T18:27:38+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## The Prevalence of Congenital Malaria 2019-07-22T09:25:49+00:00 Etefia Uwem Etefia <p>This study was aimed at highlighting on the prevalence of malaria among pregnant women in Nigeria within the last ten years. The prevalence of congenital malaria in Nigeria varies and it affects every geopolitical zone in Nigeria. This is because Nigeria like other countries in the tropics and subtropics has factors which favour the survival of mosquito. Although the World Health Organization (WHO) recommends the use of insecticide treated nets and effective case management of uncomplicated malaria as a feasible and cost-effective control strategy, Nigeria remains one of the worst affected countries in the world with malaria among pregnant women and neonates. This paper recommends more programs to the menace of this infection among pregnant women and neonates in Nigeria.</p> 2019-07-22T09:25:49+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Progression of Treating Alzheimer’s Disease with Stem Cell-based Therapies 2019-07-28T09:49:31+00:00 Jigishu Ahmed Hafizur Rahman <p>Alzheimer’s disease is one form of dementia affecting a significant proportion of the population. The etiology of this prevalent disease is currently unknown. It is postulated that AD can be treated by using stem cell-based therapies by replacing the lost neurons in the atrophic regions of the brain. For these novel therapies to be successful several sources of stem cells have been proposed, such as pluripotent stem cells as well as multipotent stem cells. Proof of concept in animal studies have shown that stem cells can grafted into the affected regions or delivered intravenously into affected parts of the brain. These experiments had improved cognition and memory performance in rodents. The promising results seen in animal models have increased interest in conducting clinical trials using the same technique. In the last 5 years, several treatments have reached phase II clinical trials. &nbsp;</p> 2019-07-28T09:49:31+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Survey on Security for WSN based VANET using ECC 2019-07-22T11:35:26+00:00 Ravi U Kalkundri Rajashri Khanai Kalkundri Praveen <p>With the increase in population, there is an increase in the number of car users drastically. Around the world, either millions of people die due to car accidents or they are severely injured by the accident. Most of the accidents occur due to lack of common information the drivers, as the lane change, applying sudden break, traffic congestion, etc, are the causes of accidents. Safety information such as speed limits, road conditions, traffic status, accidents, etc..., are used in some countries, but still more work is to be achieved. Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks (VANET) should be implemented and they should collect and distribute necessary safety information to other vehicles. VANET is a combination of Road Side Units (RSU’s) and On-Board Units (OBU’s). These RSU’s and OBU’s consist of various sensors, which are used to collect various data. The data collected by the sensors on the OBU’s on the vehicles can either be sent to another vehicle or can be displayed to the driver. Similarly, the sensor collects data at the RSU and sends the data to other RSU or depending on its nature and importance, the RSU may even be broadcasted to other vehicles. The main objective is to provide safety to the drivers, the passengers and to the information that is being transmitted between the nodes. However, in some scenarios, VANET’s may not guarantee timely detection of issues or any type of dangerous. We propose a solution by the integration of VANET and WSN to create a hybrid infrastructure with the in inexpensive wireless sensor nodes integrated on RSU’s along the roadside and on the OBU’s in the vehicle. As the new hybrid structure is proposed, there may be challenges that may occur. This article discussed these challenges and solutions to create an efficient and well-organized VANET-WSN Hybrid network.</p> 2019-07-22T11:35:26+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##