International Annals of Science 2018-11-08T12:46:20+00:00 Int. Annals of Science Open Journal Systems <p align="justify"><a title="Click for Journal homepage" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><img style="float: right; padding-left: 15px; padding-right: 5px;" src="/public/site/images/aabahishti/IAS_cover_page.jpg" alt="IAS"></a> International Annals of science is an open access, peer-reviewed, online multidisciplinary journal dedicated to publishing high-quality research in all areas of the Computer, Mathematics, Physical, Chemical, Biological, and Earth Sciences. Papers published by the journal represent important advances of significance within each field by AIJR Publisher.<br>International Annals of Science is registered with CrossRef with doi:10.21467/ias and ISSN of this journal is &nbsp;2456-7132 [online].</p> Infant Screening System Based on Cry Analysis 2018-10-02T06:47:48+00:00 Akshay M Mendhakar Sreedevi N Arunraj K Jayashree C Shanbal <p>Acoustical investigation of infant cries has been a clinical and research focus in the recent years. Findings of several studies reveal the importance of cry as a useful window for early detection of several diseases and communication difficulties such as hearing impairment, intellectual disabilities, cerebral palsy etc. This motivates us to use a minimal interface system that can automatically classify infant cries into normal and pathological with the help of state-of-the-art machine learning strategies. In this paper, we propose a software program for screening infants based on their cries. The proposed system is able to detect &amp; classify infant cries into normal and pathological based on the acoustic input. To build and train the system, infant cries of normal and Low Birth Weight (LBW) newborn within 7 days of birth were considered. A pain induced cry elicited using the routine intramuscular immunization was recorded using a standard Olympus LS-100 recorder which was held about 10 centimetres away from the infant’s mouth. The acoustic correlates of these cries were used to build the software tool. Artificial Neural Network was employed to improve its functionality. Therefore, we propose a screening tool for further accessibility and large-scale implementation.</p> 2018-10-02T06:46:30+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Comparative Study of the in vitro Antioxidant Properties of Methanolic Extracts of Chromolaena odorata and Ageratum conyzoides use in Wound Healing 2018-10-02T07:55:49+00:00 Babatunde Oso Nosarieme Abey Oyedotun Oyeleke Boyede Olowookere <p>This study sought to evaluate the potential antioxidative potency of <em>Chromolaena&nbsp;odorata</em> and <em>Ageratum conyzoides, </em>&nbsp;commonly used herbs in Nigeria for wound first aid and healing. The antioxidant potentials were evaluated by measuring their ability to scavenge radicals, reduce oxidised iron and quench the formation of lipid peroxides. The findings showed that the extract of <em>Ageratum conyzoides </em>exhibited significantly higher (<em>p</em>&lt;0.05) antioxidant potential than the extract of <em>Chromolaena odorata</em>. The study therefore suggests that <em>Ageratum conyzoides </em>has higher potential for therapeutic value than <em>Chromolaena odorata</em> in terms of antioxidant potential.</p> 2018-10-02T07:55:49+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Total Phenolic Contents and Antioxidant Variations in Raw and Cooked Dried Fruit of Xylopia Aethiopica 2018-10-02T09:21:32+00:00 Babatunde Joseph Oso Adenike Temidayo Oladiji <p>Most plant products undergo one or more different thermal processes before consumption despite the claims that cooking fruits and vegetables could have detrimental effects on the beneficial properties of the plant. This work investigated the changes in antioxidant status occurring in dried fruit of <em>Xylopia aethiopica</em>. subjected to cooking at different temperatures. The analyses were performed on both raw and boiled samples to assess the total phenolic contents (TPCs) and the antioxidant potential through reduction of ferric chloride salt and bleaching of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical. The data obtained were subjected to analysis of variance and pairwise comparisons by Tukey-Kramer test at p &lt; 0.05. There was a significant heat-trend difference between the phenolic contents of the samples at the selected temperatures with the highest TPC recorded at 70°C. Similarly, the ferric reducing potentials of the cooked samples were significantly different (p &lt;0.05) from the raw. However, uncooked samples had significantly (p &lt;0.05) higher percentage of DPPH radical scavenging activity compared to cooked samples. The overall effect of cooking the dried fruit of <em>X. aethiopica</em>. was due to an elevation in total phenolics concentrations and reducing potentials of the aqueous infusions. However, boiling decreases the DPPH radical scavenging ability of the samples. Therefore, this study suggests an optimum cooking temperature of 70°C which could result in the highest retention of phenolic contents and ferric reducing potentials in the fruit of <em>X. aethiopica</em>. and lowest appropriate temperature to conserve its intrinsic radical-scavenging activity in order to assure a higher quality food for the maintenance of human health. Moreover, losses in the phenolic contents and antioxidant potential should be considered when the procedural temperature during processing is unalterable.</p> 2018-10-02T09:17:54+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Phytominerals and Phytochemical Studies of Azadiracthta Indica, Leea Guineensis and Parkia Biglobosa Leaves 2018-11-08T12:46:20+00:00 Olamilekan Lanre Awotedu P. O. Ogunbamowo I. B. Emmanuel I. O. Lawal <p>Medicinal plants have great importance in African medicine and are also used as precursors in drug discovery. The medicinal value of a plant lies in its bioactive constituents which usually allows them to fight against several diseases. Plant-based natural constituents can be derived from any part of the plant like bark, leaves, flowers, roots, fruits, seeds. The mineral and phytochemical analysis of the leaves of <em>Azadirachta indica</em>, <em>Parkia biglobos</em>a and<em> Leea guineensis</em> were investigated. The leaves were collected from the Herbal Garden, Forestry Research Institute of Nigeria, Jericho hills, Ibadan, Nigeria and identified at Forest Herbarium Ibadan. Oyo State. The leaves were air dried and milled to powder using a medium-sized milling machine and stored in an air-tight container until needed for analysis. Phytochemical screening/analysis and mineral analysis were determined using standard analytical methods. Phytochemicals like Alkaloids, Flavonoids, Tannins, Saponins, Anthraquinone, Cardiac glycoside were determined. while Minerals, such as Potassium, Sodium determined using flame photometer; Calcium, Phosphorus, Magnesium, Iron, Zinc, Manganese, and Copper were determined using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. Results indicates that the bioactive contents of the leaves varied significantly (p&lt;0.05) among the medicinal plants. The phytochemical analysis showed that the three medicinal plants contained alkaloid, saponins, tannins, flavonoids, polyphenols, cardiac glycoside and anthraquinone in varying quantities with the trend: <em>A indica</em> &gt; <em>P. biglobosa &gt; L. guineensis</em>; the macro elements showed similar trend as the phytochemicals while the micro elements followed the trend: <em>P. biglobosa</em> &gt; <em>L. guineensis</em> <em>&gt; A indica</em>. These results conceivably indicate that the three medicinal plant are good source of essential minerals and phyto-nutrients which possess strong pharmacological activities and provide scientific credence for its therapeutic usage.</p> 2018-11-08T12:46:20+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Cryptosporidium in the Philippines 2018-10-14T09:41:58+00:00 Ryan Vidal Labana <p>This short review attempts to provide an overview regarding the research findings on the occurrence of <em>Cryptosporidium</em> in the Philippines. It seeks to set conjecture about its possible role on the increasing waterborne disease incidences in the country. Intensive search of journal articles was done among major databases, online. The first report of <em>Cryptosporidium</em> infection in the country was in 1985. Past more than 30 years, <em>Cryptosporidium</em> is not yet well-understood in the Philippines, but an increasing research interest has been observed among Filipinos in the past few years.&nbsp; Recently, waterborne transmission of the infection appeared in the studies to be more potent than zoonotic and person-to-person transmissions. An improvement on the detection methods was also observed, giving an improved knowledge on the molecular diversity of <em>Cryptosporidium</em> in the country. Despite these improvements, the paucity of the data regarding the impact of <em>Cryptosporidium</em> to the public health in the Philippines is still apparent. One Health approach is recommended to fully understand the interconnections between human, animal, and environment as reservoirs of the infective stage of the parasite. Dedication of the researchers in understanding their geographical distribution, molecular diversity, and environmental and climatic behaviour will eventually uncover the public health implications of <em>Cryptosporidium</em> in the country.</p> 2018-10-14T09:41:58+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##