International Annals of Science 2020-04-07T17:22:23+00:00 Int. Annals of Science Open Journal Systems <p align="justify"><a title="Click for Journal homepage" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><img style="float: right; padding-left: 15px; padding-right: 5px;" src="/public/site/images/aabahishti/IAS_cover_page.jpg" alt="IAS"></a> International Annals of science is an open access, peer-reviewed, online multidisciplinary journal dedicated to publishing high-quality research in all areas of the Computer, Mathematics, Physical, Chemical, Biological, and Earth Sciences. Papers published by the journal represent important advances of significance within each field by AIJR Publisher.<br>International Annals of Science is registered with CrossRef with doi:10.21467/ias and ISSN of this journal is &nbsp;2456-7132 [online].</p> Conformable Derivatives in Laplace Equation and Fractional Fourier Series Solution 2020-04-07T17:22:23+00:00 Ronak Pashaei Mohammad Sadegh Asgari Amir Pishkoo <p>In this paper the solution of conformable Laplace equation, \frac{\partial^{\alpha}u(x,y)}{\partial x^{\alpha}}+ \frac{\partial^{\alpha}u(x,y)}{\partial y^{\alpha}}=0, where 1 &lt; α ≤ 2 has been deduced by using fractional fourier series and separation of variables method. For special cases α =2 (Laplace's equation), α=1.9, and α=1.8 conformable fractional fourier coefficients have been calculated. To calculate coefficients, integrals are of type "conformable fractional integral".</p> 2019-11-07T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Haulm Forage Value of Lentil Varieties in Central Ethiopia 2020-04-07T17:22:23+00:00 Asemahegn Mersha Hailegiorgis Debissa Lemessa <p>The major livestock feed next to natural pasture in central highlands of Ethiopia is cereal crop residue; however, supplementation with additional nutritional entities is most often recommended.&nbsp; The present study aims to examine the nutritive value of lentil haulm and how this value varies among the varieties and locations. For this, 80gms of haulm samples of Alemaya, Derash and local lentil varieties were collected with four replications from Bishoftu, Akaki, and Chefe-Donsa from on farm trial sites of Ethiopian institute of agricultural research. To test for the variation in haulm nutritional values among the varieties, two-way ANOVA was employed. The results showed that the interaction of variety and location had significant effect on crude protein (CP), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), metabolizable energy (ME) and in vitro organic matter digestibility (IVOMD) (P&lt;0.05). Here, CP content of lentil haulm was higher for a local variety when compared with the two commercial varieties. The haulm yield (4.38t/ha) and haulm dry matter yield (3.97 t DM/ha) were higher for Derash when compared with that of the local variety (P&lt;0.05). Overall, the present finding denoted that although in some cases the lentil haulm nutritional values and yields vary among varieties and were dependent on growing locations, it can be observed to have optimum feeding values to supplement livestock feed with the cereal crop residues in central Ethiopia.</p> 2019-11-14T09:30:59+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Heavy Metal Resistance by Endophytic Bacteria Isolated from Guava (Psidium Guajava) and Mango (Mangifera Indica) Leaves 2020-04-07T17:22:22+00:00 Maryam Lami Riskuwa-Shehu Haruna Yahaya Ismail Udem Joshua Josiah Ijah <p>Heavy metal resistant bacteria are widespread in nature and their application in decontamination of polluted ecosystems is promising. In this study, ability of endophytic bacteria isolated from <em>Psidium guajava</em> (Guava) and<em> Mangifera indica</em> (Mango) for heavy metal resistance was assessed. Leaves samples form the two plants were collected and processed according to the standard laboratory practices. Heavy metals were analyzed using Atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Endophytic bacteria were isolated and identified using morphological and biochemical characteristics; heavy metal resistance was determined by plate dilution method. Heavy metal analysis revealed that the leaves samples contained considerable quantities of Manganese (Mn), Lead (Pb) and Cadmium (Cd) ranging from 1.21±1.6 mg/Kg (for Cd in Guava leaves) to 116.58±1.3 mg/Kg (for Mn in Mango leaves). A total of six bacterial species were isolated from both of the plants leaves (3 each). Guava endophytes were identified as <em>Streptococcus </em>sp<em>, Staphylococcus albus </em>and<em> Staphylococcus seiuri </em>whereas <em>Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus xylulose </em>and <em>Staphylococcus intermedius </em>were from Mango leaves. The identified isolates were tested for ability to resist heavy metals <em>in-vitro</em> and were capable of showing different patterns of resistance to MnCl<sub>2</sub>, PbCl<sub>2</sub> and CdCl<sub>2</sub>.&nbsp; All the endophytes were highly resistant to PbCl<sub>2</sub> followed by MnCl<sub>2</sub> but susceptible to CdCl<sub>2</sub>. The ability of plants and bacterial endophytes understudy to tolerate or resist heavy metals is a good indication of their phytoremediation potentials and thus, should be harnessed.</p> 2019-11-16T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Prevalence of Intestinal Helminth Infections of Stray Dogs of Public Health Significance in Lagos Metropolis, Nigeria 2020-04-07T17:22:22+00:00 Olatunji Ayodeji Abulude <p>Globally, stray dogs have been a major source of zoonoses such as cutaneous larval migrans, visceral larval migrans and hydatidosis. These dogs are recognized as being a major public health problem where their population is unchecked. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of intestinal helminth parasites of stray dogs in Lagos metropolis. Stools of 96 stray dogs were examined microscopically for ova of these parasites using centrifugation flotation method. Four species of intestinal helminths were identified. The overall prevalence of helminths infection was 61.4%, with <em>Ancylostoma caninum </em>having a prevalence of 62.5%, <em>Toxocara canis </em>20.8%<em>, Dipylidium caninum </em>18.7% and <em>Strongyloides stercoralis </em>2.0%. <em>T. canis</em> had the highest worm burden of 1,250 egg per gram (EPG) while <em>S. stercoralis</em> had the least (100 EPG). The areas with the most helminth infections were Yaba (n=12,<em> X̄</em><em>=1.58, SD=0.793</em>), Agege (n=11,<em> X̄</em><em>=1.73, SD=0.786</em>) and Ikotun (n=11,<em> X̄</em><em>=1.45, SD=0.820</em>). <em>S. stercoralis </em>was only found in samples obtained from Mushin and Ikorodu. Most of the stool samples obtained from this study had mixed infections, 83.3% were infected with three helminth species, 8.3% were infected with four helminth species and none had double infection. Mushin had the most mixed infections (n=4, <em>X̄</em><em>=1.900, SD=1.101</em>) while Obalende had the least (n=1, <em>X̄</em><em>=1.000, SD=0.000</em>). Most of the intestinal helminth parasites identified in this study are zoonotic and thus pose a public health problem. Environmental factors seem to influence the health condition of these dogs, thus concerted efforts should be made to reduce the growing population of stray dogs on the street of Lagos.</p> 2019-11-16T07:26:23+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Outdoor Air Quality and Antibiogram Characteristics of Bacterial Isolates of Akure City Abattoirs, Nigeria 2020-04-07T17:22:22+00:00 Olubukola Olayemi Olusola-makinde <p>Air sampling of Onyearugbulem and FUTA abattoirs was carried out to evaluate their quality. Air sampling was done using the open-settling method on general and selective agar media of the gutter, sleeping bench, slaughtering floor dumpsite, slaughtering table and roof of the abattoirs.&nbsp; Using standard methods, Presumptive identification of the bacterial isolates was carried out. An array of ten (10) conventional antibiotics was used to assay the antibiotic susceptibility characteristics of the bacterial isolates. Multiple antibiotic sensitivity index (MARI) was determined for isolated bacteria. At Onyearugbulem abattoir, the total <em>Escherichia coli</em> count ranged from 3.6×10 cfu/ml from the gutter and slaughtering table to 6.5×10 cfu/ml from the slaughtering floor, while the total bacterial count ranged from 1.34×10<sup>2</sup> cfu/ml from dumpsite to 2.55×10<sup>2</sup> cfu/ml from the gutter, the total coliform count ranged from 2.8× 10 cfu/ml from slaughtering floor to 4.1×10 cfu/ml from sleeping bench. Several bacteria were presumptively isolated. These include: <em>Micrococcus </em>sp.<em>, Bacillus </em>sp.<em>, Staphylococcus aureus,</em> <em>Escherichia coli, Proteus </em>sp.,<em> Enterobacter aerogenes </em>and<em> Aeromonas </em>sp. Ciprofloxacin (10 µg) had an inhibitory effect on all the Gram positive bacterial isolates with the highest inhibitory activity on <em>S. aureus </em>at 24.00 mm, and the Gram negative bacteria with the highest inhibitory activity on <em>E. coli </em>at 21.00 mm. <em>Micrococcus </em>sp. had the highest MARI of 0.8. These findings reveal the presence of multiple-antibiotic resistant bacteria in Onyearugbulem and FUTA abattoirs’ atmosphere. There is therefore need for routine environmental sanitation of the slaughterhouses.</p> 2019-11-16T09:24:59+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## He’s Multiple-Scale Solution for the Three-dimensional Nonlinear KH Instability of Rotating Magnetic Fluids 2020-04-07T17:22:21+00:00 Yusry Osman El-Dib Amal A Mady <p>This paper elucidates a trend in solving nonlinear&nbsp;oscillators of the rotating Kelvin-Helmholtz instability. The system is constituted by the vertical&nbsp;flux&nbsp;or the horizontal&nbsp;flux. He’s multiple-scales perturbation&nbsp;methodology&nbsp;has been applied&nbsp;and therefore the&nbsp;system is&nbsp;represented&nbsp;by a generalized homotopy equation. This approach&nbsp;ends up in a periodic&nbsp;answer&nbsp;to a&nbsp;nonlinear&nbsp;oscillator&nbsp;with high nonlinearity. The cubic-quintic&nbsp;nonlinear&nbsp;Duffing equation is&nbsp;obligatory&nbsp;as a condition to uniformly answer. This equation&nbsp;is employed&nbsp;to derive&nbsp;the stability&nbsp;criteria. The transition curves&nbsp;are plotted to investigate the stability image.&nbsp;It's&nbsp;shown that the angular&nbsp;velocity suppresses the instability. The tangential&nbsp;flux&nbsp;plays a&nbsp;helpful&nbsp;role, whereas&nbsp;the vertical field&nbsp;encompasses a destabilizing influence. Within the existence of the rotation, the velocity ratio reduces stability configuration.</p> 2019-12-06T07:33:08+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Anti-nutritional Composition, Heavy Metal Content and Mineral Bioavailability of Red Tree Vine (Leea guineensis G. Don) Fruits 2020-04-07T17:22:21+00:00 Musbau Bayonle Olaniyii Samsideen Olabiyi Rufai <p><em>Leea guineensis </em>G. Don is an evergreen shrub that has been reported to be important in Nigeria due to its medicinal and nutritional uses. However, there is paucity of documented information on the anti-nutritional composition, heavy metal content and mineral bioavailability of <em>L. guineensis </em>whole fruits<em>.</em> Hence, this study investigated the essential minerals, heavy metals and anti-nutritional compositions of <em>L. guineensis</em> whole fruits with a view to assess the quantity, bioavailability of the mineral elements and ultimately the safety of the fruits using standard analytical procedures. The results of phytochemical screening confirmed presence of secondary metabolites in varying quantities. The anti-nutrient contents (mg/100g) were phytates (29530); oxalates (510); saponins (10333); alkaloids (30533) and tannins (53.3). The results of mineral analysis revealed that <em>L. guineensis</em> fruits were rich in essential minerals (mg/100g) like, potassium (493); calcium (200); magnesium (103.3); phosphorus (9.9); zinc (8.5); manganese (5.5) and iron (5.0). The heavy metals concentrations were in the order lead&gt;chromium&gt;nickel&gt;cobalt&gt;cadmium. The values obtained were within the WHO permissible limits for heavy metals in medicinal plants. Meanwhile, the results of molar ratio phytates: Ca (8.97); oxalates: Ca (0.7978) and Ca.phytates:Zn (0.64) were below the suggested critical values indicating the bioavailability of calcium to be high. While phytates: Fe (501.06) and phytates: Zn (348.22) were higher than the critical values indicating poor bioavailability of Fe and Zn. The study therefore suggests that <em>L. guineensis </em>fruits are a good source of phyto-minerals which can be harnessed for nutritional purpose. Also, the anti-nutrient contents in <em>L. guineensis </em>whole fruits should be reduced to a safe level through processing methods (soaking, de-pulping or fermentation) in order to achieve its optimum nutritional or medicinal use.</p> 2019-12-08T13:31:06+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Differential Expression Analysis on Schizophrenia Dataset Suggests Pseudogene RNU6-505P as under Selective Pressure 2020-04-07T17:22:21+00:00 Emilio Mastriani Alexey V Rakov Shu-Lin Liu <p>Schizophrenia is one of the 15 leading causes of disability worldwide. About&nbsp;1% of the global population has schizophrenia, with 10% of premature mortality chance. Schizophrenia is therefore associated with significant health, social and economic concerns. In this context, thalamus and striatum areas play&nbsp;important roles as much in schizophrenia as processing information before reaching the conscious thought: step happening soon in the creativity action. Creativity is defined by psychological scientists as the generation of ideas or products that are both original and valuable. Creativity relies on imagination and this fundamental human ability remains understudied in comparison to other important psychological phenomena. It is natural to ask whether the gene expression profiling of samples from schizophrenic patients could highlight the activity of some genes&nbsp;specific to humans. Microarray analysis of the dataset GSE25673 revealed&nbsp;that the pseudogene RNU6-505P is expressed&nbsp;differentially&nbsp;in schizophrenic samples and&nbsp;correlates to CYP26A1, ARHGAP18, TSPAN12, HEY2 and TMEM132A genes. Ontological analysis showed that the&nbsp;RNU6-505P pseudogene is involved in brain development and certain neurological pathologies. Evolutionary analysis showed&nbsp;that the AGA 3-nucleotide sequence of RNU6-505P&nbsp;has been under positive selective pressure. Finally, the 1-nucleotide mutation prediction test revealed&nbsp;that variations on the AGA nucleotides could be fatal to the RNA structure of the sequence. We conclude that differential expression of the RNU6-505P pseudogene can be valid to diagnose schizophrenia&nbsp;and&nbsp;the RNU6-505P pseudogene may have a relevant function in the cerebral development and in the divergent evolution of humans from apes.</p> 2020-01-25T16:01:41+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Evaluation of Wood Ash as Additive for Cow Manure Composting 2020-04-07T17:22:20+00:00 Blaise Pascal Bougnom Onguene Dieudonne Alain Martial Sontsa-Donhoung <p>This study was conducted to produce high-quality compost using both cow manure and wood ash that can specifically be used to increase the fertility of soils in tropical regions. Increased proportions of wood ash were co-composted with cow manure. During composting, the composts produced presented the classical composting temperature curve and attain a thermophilic composting phase (about 60 <sup>o</sup>C). After 117 days of composting, the produced composts (CMA 0%; CMA 5%; CMA 10% and CMA15%) had a C/N ratio between 16 and 30, and their pH, was basic, indicating maturity.&nbsp; They were rich in minerals (Mg; Ca; K+; and Na+) and poor in heavy metals (Zn; Cu and Pb). Wood ash addition raise the fungal communities except for CMA 0% and did not impair significantly on bacteria communities; however, addition of high amounts of wood ash could reduce the metabolism of the microbial communities including cellulase activity that showed a proportional decrease according to the added amount except for CMA 15%. The composts showed a germination index greater than 80% at all concentrations, indicating the absence of phytotoxicity. Therefore, co-composting of cow manure with wood ash (&lt;15%) allowed to obtain a good organic fertilizer with higher liming potential, nutrient content, and less hazardous material which could be used in farms to remediate acidity of tropical soils</p> 2020-03-09T19:26:52+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Ovicidal and Larvicidal Activities of Ethanolic Leaf Extracts of Three Botanicals Against the Malaria Vector - Anopheles Gambiae 2020-04-07T17:22:20+00:00 Funmilayo Bukola Egunjobi Ikem Chris Okoye <p>Malaria, transmitted by <em>Anopheles gambiae</em>, has been a major public health concern in Africa. Chemicals used in the control of <em>A. gambiae</em> have caused a lot of havoc in the environment and to non-target organisms. More so, a high rate of resistance by these mosquitoes has been recorded. This study evaluated the ovicidal and larvicidal activities of ethanolic leaf extracts of <em>Duranta erecta</em>, <em>Tridax procumbens</em> and <em>Pennisetum purpureum</em> against <em>A. gambiae</em>. Phytochemical analysis of these plants revealed the presence of tannins, saponins, alkanoids, flavonoids, glycosides and anthroquinone. Ground dry leaves of each plant material were concentrated in 7 litres of 95% ethanol for 72 hours followed by filtration and evaporation. <em>D. erecta, T. procumbens </em>and<em> P. purpureum</em> yielded 617.2g, 598.3g and 552g of extracts respectively. The WHO standard for mosquito bioassay was adopted and concentrations 40, 100, 140 and 200 parts per million (PPM) were tested against 20 eggs and 25 larvae using emersion method. The hatching rate and % larval mortality of the extracts were recorded in which a concentration dependent increase was observed. High ovicidal activity (low egg hatchability) was recorded in <em>D. erecta</em> (LC<sub>50 </sub>-10.037 PPM) followed by <em>P. purpureum </em>and<em> T. procumbens</em> with LC<sub>50</sub> values of 17.380 and 39.198 respectively. The highest larvicidal activity was observed in <em>D. erecta</em> (LC<sub>50</sub> -76.943 PPM) compared to <em>P. purpureum</em> and <em>T. procumbens</em> (LC<sub>50</sub> - 213.410 PPM and 214.217 PPM). Evidently, <em>D. erecta</em> ethanolic leaf extracts showed the best efficacy in the control of <em>A. gambiae</em> in this study. <em>D. erecta</em> is an environmentally friendly alternative in reducing the use of chemicals for mosquito control.</p> 2020-03-10T19:03:07+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## The 14-3-3 (YWHA) Proteins in Signalling and Development of the Fruit Fly, Drosophila melanogaster 2020-04-07T17:22:21+00:00 Santanu De <p>The 14-3-3 (YWHA or Tyrosine 3-Monooxygenase/Tryptophan 5-Monooxygenase Activation proteins) are a family of highly conserved, homologous proteins critical to diverse cellular events including cell cycle, signal transduction and embryonic development.&nbsp; Various species-specific isoforms of 14-3-3 exist, encoded by separate genes.&nbsp; They are expressed in a wide variety of organisms ranging from plants to animals, including the fruit fly or <em>Drosophila melanogaster</em>.&nbsp; <em>Drosophila </em>is one of the most universally accepted model systems to study complex cellular mechanisms of signalling and development.&nbsp; However, regulation of these processes in fruit flies by the 14-3-3 proteins have not been entirely understood.&nbsp; This mini review encapsulates the expression, distribution, interactions and regulatory roles of the 14-3-3 proteins in <em>Drosophila</em>.&nbsp; The analysis would help to elucidate some of the molecular bases of key cell-signalling mechanisms and development.</p> 2019-12-08T15:29:31+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Isolation and Activity Determination of Enzyme Phosphatase Secreted by Aspergillus niger 2020-04-07T17:22:22+00:00 Tafadzwa Zharare Rumbidzai Mangoyi <p>The use of enzymes on industrial scale saves a lot of energy and avoids pollution, thus holding a promise for green and economically sustainable alternative strategies in industrial transformations.&nbsp; Generally, the fungi <em>Aspergillus niger </em>secretes enzymes which can be used in different industries. Thus, coming up with these enzymes in large amounts will definitely result in reduced costs encountered in importing them for industrial use. &nbsp;This study focussed on isolation and activity determination of an enzyme phosphatase secreted by <em>Aspergillus niger</em>.&nbsp; This enzyme can be of great importance in molecular biology industries, particularly for recombinant DNA technology.&nbsp; For this study, pure cultures of <em>Aspergillus niger</em> were used.&nbsp; <em>Aspergillus niger</em> was resuscitated on potato dextrose agar and then subcultured in Adam’s medium, a medium specific for the production of phosphatase.&nbsp; Cells were centrifuged and the filtrate was collected whilst the residue was discarded. The filtrate was expected to contain the crude enzyme phosphatase since <em>Aspergillus niger </em>secretes the extracellular enzyme into the medium. Disodium phenyl phosphate was used as a substrate for the determination of the phosphatase activity. The enzyme activity was determined spectrophotometrically by reading absorbance of phenol formed in the presence of enzyme and the substrate. The concentration of phenol liberated was then used to calculate the enzyme activity expressed in King Armstrong Units (KAU). &nbsp;Further work on enzyme activity determination was done by varying enzyme and substrate concentrations.&nbsp; Results showed that the isolated alkaline phosphatase had activity of 4.0 KAU and 4.5 KAU at 25 ºC and 37 ºC respectively. Acidic phosphatase had activity of 5 KAU and 7 KAU at 25 ºC and 37 ºC respectively. Rate of activity increased upon increasing enzyme concentration and substrate.&nbsp; Thus, <em>Aspergillus niger</em> produces the enzyme phosphatase, however, there is need to induce the production of these enzymes for industrial use.</p> 2019-11-16T09:39:43+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Effects of Four Different Food Additives on the Oxidative Stress Markers of Wistar Albino Rats 2020-04-07T17:22:21+00:00 Ifemeje J C Ezeonyemalu U E Chukwuebuka Egbuna Olisah M C Ifemeje M O <p>This work investigated the effects of food additives on the oxidative stress markers and liver marker enzymes. Food additives are products added to the basic food stuff with an aim of improving its flavor, aspect, texture, color, taste, and value. Thirty (30) Wistar rats were divided into five groups of six rats each. Group A received a daily dose of distillated water and normal rat pellet, Group B, C, D and E received 20 mg/kg body of Aspartame, Sodium Benzoate, Sodium nitrite and sodium sulfite respectively. The duration for exposure of these animals to food additives was 30 days and the groups were observed daily for general conditions. At the end of feeding the animals, blood samples were collected and analyzed. The result of the analysis showed that ALT significantly (p&lt;0.05) increased with sodium nitrite and sodium sulfite while ALP increased significantly (p&lt;0.05) with sodium sulphite. The oxidative stress biomarker, catalase showed a significant increase with sodium benzoate and sodium sulphite. The results revealed that the food additives are injurious to the animals. The toxicity of the food additives studied at 20 mg/kg are in the order of Sodium nitrite &gt; Sodium benzoate &gt; Sodium sulphite &gt; Aspartame.</p> 2019-11-24T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##