Total Phenolic Contents and Antioxidant Variations in Raw and Cooked Dried Fruit of Xylopia aethiopica

  • Babatunde Joseph Oso Department of Biochemistry, Kings University, Odeomu
  • Adenike Temidayo Oladiji Department of Biochemistry, University of Ilorin, Nigeria


Most plant products undergo one or more different thermal processes before consumption despite the claims that cooking fruits and vegetables could have detrimental effects on the beneficial properties of the plants. This work investigated the changes in antioxidant status occurring in dried fruit of Xylopia aethiopica subjected to cooking at different temperatures. The analyses were performed on both raw and boiled samples to assess the total phenolic contents (TPCs) and the antioxidant potential through reduction of ferric chloride salt and bleaching of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical. The data obtained were subjected to analysis of variance and pairwise comparisons by Tukey-Kramer test at p < 0.05. There was a significant heat-trend difference between the phenolic contents of the samples at the selected temperatures with the highest TPC recorded at 70°C. Similarly, the ferric reducing potentials of the cooked samples were significantly different (p <0.05) from the raw. However, uncooked samples had significantly (p <0.05) higher percentage of DPPH radical scavenging activity compared to cooked samples. The overall effect of cooking the dried fruit of X. aethiopica was due to an elevation in total phenolics concentrations and reducing potentials of the aqueous infusions. However, boiling decreases the DPPH radical scavenging ability of the samples. Therefore, this study suggests an optimum cooking temperature of 70°C which could result in the highest retention of phenolic contents and ferric reducing potentials in the fruit of X. aethiopica and lowest appropriate temperature to conserve its intrinsic radical-scavenging activity in order to assure a higher quality food for the maintenance of human health. Moreover, losses in the phenolic contents and antioxidant potential should be considered when the procedural temperature during processing is unalterable.

Keywords: Xylopia aethiopica, total phenolic contents, antioxidant capacity, temperature


Download data is not yet available.


  • Rodriguez-Casado, “The health potential of fruits and vegetables phytochemicals: Notable examples,” Critical Reviews in food Science and Nutrition, vol. 56, no. 7, pp. 1097-1107, 2014.

  • Maritess, S. Small, and M. Waltz-Hill, “Alternative nutrition therapies in cancer patients,” Sem. Oncol. Nurs., vol. 21, pp. 173-176, 2005.

  • L. Brookie, G. I. Best and T. S. Conner, “Intake of raw fruits and vegetables is associated with better mental health than intake of processed fruits and vegetables,” Front. Psychol., vol. 9, pp. 487, 2018.

  • J. Oso, O. Oyeleke and O. Soetan, “Influence of different solvent polarities on the phenolics, flavonoids and antioxidant properties of the fruit of Xylopia aethiopica (Dunal) A. Rich.,” Trends Phytochem. Res., vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 97-102, 2018.

  • H. Konning, C. Agyare and B. Ennison, “Antimicrobial activity of some medicinal plants from Ghana,” Fitoterapia, vol. 75, no. 1, pp. 65-67, 2004.

  • A. Adaramoye, J. Sarkar, N. Singh, S. Meena, B. Changkija, P. P. Yadav, S. Kanojiya and Sinha S, “Antiproliferative action  of  Xylopia aethiopica fruit  extract  on  human  cervical cancer cells,” Phytotherapy Research., vol. 25, no.  10, pp. 1558-1563, 2011.

  • O. Ameyaw, E. Woode, E. Boakye-Gyasi, W. K. Abotsi, J. O. Kyekyeku and R. K. Adosraku, “Anti-allodynic and Anti-hyperalgesic effects of an  ethanolic  extract  and  xylopic  acid from  the  fruits  of  Xylopia  aethiopica in murine  models  of  neuropathic  pain,” Pharmacognosy Research, vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 172-179, 2014.

  • L. Sado Kamde, N. Belletti, F. Tchoumbougnang, J. J. Essia-Ngang, C. Montanari,  G. Tabanelli, R. Lanciotti and F. Gardini, “Effect  of mild  heat  treatments  on  the  antimicrobial activity of essential oils of  Curcuma longa, Xylopia  aethiopicaZanthoxylum xanthoxyloides and  Zanthoxylum  leprieurii against  Salmonella  enteritidis,” Journal  of Essential Oil Research, vol. 27, no.1, pp. 52-60, 2015.

  • J. Oso, E. B. Oyewo and A. T. Oladiji, “Ethanolic, n-hexane and aqueous partitioned extracts of Xylopia aethiopica fruit modulated inflammatory responses in turpentine oil induced acute inflammation in male Wistar rats,” Int. J. Res. Health Sci., vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 1-10, 2017.

  • F. Boyom, V. Ngouana, P. H. Zollo, C. Menut, J. M. Bessiere, J. Gut and P. J. Rosenthal, “Composition and anti-plasmodial  activities  of  essential oils  from  some  Cameroonian  medicinal plants,” Phytochemistry, vol. 64, no. 7, pp. 1269-1275, 2003.

  • D. Obiri and N. Osafo, “Aqueous  ethanol extract  of  the  fruit  of  Xylopia  aethiopica (Annonaceae)  exhibits  anti-anaphylactic and  anti-inflammatory  actions  in  mice,” Journal  of  Ethnopharmacology, vol. 148, no. 3, pp. 940-945, 2013.

  • L. Singleton, R. Orthofer and R.M. Lamuela-Raventos, “Analysis of total phenols and other oxidation substrates and antioxidants by means of Folin-Ciocalteu reagent,” Methods Enzymol., vol. 299, pp. 152–178, 1999.

  • Oyaizu, “Studies on products of browning reactions: antioxidant activities of products of browning reaction prepared from glucosamine,” Jap J Nutr., vol. 44, pp. 307-315, 1986.

  • Shirwaikar, K. Rajendran and I. S. Punithaa, “In vitro antioxidant studies on the benzyl tetra isoquinoline alkaloid berberine,” Biological and Pharmaceutical Bulletin, vol. 29, pp. 1906–1910, 2006.

  • A. Masrizal, D. W. Giraud and J. A. Driskell, “Retention of vitamin C, iron, and beta-carotene in vegetables prepared using different cooking methods,” J. Food Qual., vol. 20, no. 5, pp. 403–418, 1997.

  • L. Zambrano-Moreno, R. N. Chávez-Jáuregui, M. I. Plaza and L. Wessel-Beaver, “Phenolic content and antioxidant capacity in organically and conventionally grown eggplant (Solanum melongena) fruits following thermal processing,” Food Sci. Technol, Campinas, vol. 35, no. 3,pp. 414-420, 2015.

  • O. Nwozo, B.J. Oso and B. E. Oyinloye, “Effect of Heat on Antioxidant Activity of Some Tropical Leafy Vegetables,” Nigerian Journal of Basic and Applied Science, vol. 23, no. 2, pp. 93-101. 2015.

  • Harbaum, E. M. Hubbermann, C. Wolff, R. Herges, Z. Zhu and K. Schwarz, “Identification of Flavonoids and Hydroxycinnamic Acids in Pak Choi  Varieties  (Brassica  campestris  L.  ssp.  chinensis  var. communis) by HPLC–ESI-MS n and NMR and Their Quantification by HPLC–DAD,” J. of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, vol. 55, no. 20, pp 8251-8260, 2007.

  • Simone and E. Schlich, “Impact of different cooking methods on food quality: Retention of lipophilic vitamins in fresh and frozen vegetables,” Journal of Food Engineering, vol. 77, pp. 327–333, 2006.

  • D. Mistry and P. J. Williams, “The importance of antioxidant micronutrients in pregnancy,” Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longetivity, vol. 2011, pp. 841749, 2011.

  • N. Vhangani and J. Van Wyk, “Antioxidant activity of Maillard reaction products (MPRs) in a lipi-rich model system,” Food Chem., vol. 208, pp. 301-308, 2016.

  • Mayeaux, Z. Xu, J. M. King, W. Prinyawiwatkui, “Effects of Cooking Conditions on the lycopene content in tomatoes,” J. Food Science, vol. 71, no. 8, pp. C461-C464, 2006.

  • Amin and W. Y. Lee, “Effect of different blanching times on antioxidant properties in selected cruciferous vegetables,” J. Sci. Food Agric., vol. 85, pp. 2314–2320, 2005.

  • Ruiz-Rodriguez, F. R. Marín, A. Ocaña and C. Soler-Rivas, “Effect of domestic processing on bioactive compounds,” Phytochemistry Review, vol. 7, pp. 345–384, 2008.

  • A.  Adefegha and G.  Oboh,  ”Enhancement  of  total  phenolics  and antioxidant properties of some tropical green leafy vegetables by steam cooking,” Journal of Food Processing and Preservation, vol. 35, no. 5, pp. 615-622, 2011.

  • D Thi, and E. S. Hwang, “Effects of different cooking methods on bioactive compound content and antioxidant activity of water spinach (Ipomoea aquatica),” Food Science and Biotechnology, vol. 24, no. 3, pp. 799-806, 2015.

How to Cite
B. Oso and A. Oladiji, “Total Phenolic Contents and Antioxidant Variations in Raw and Cooked Dried Fruit of Xylopia aethiopica”, Int. Ann. Sci., vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 13-17, Oct. 2018.
Research Article