Cryptosporidium in the Philippines

  • Ryan Vidal Labana Polytechnic University of the Philippines


This short review provides an overview regarding the research findings on the occurrence of Cryptosporidium in the Philippines. It seeks to set conjecture about its possible role on the increasing waterborne disease incidences in the country. Intensive search of journal articles was done among major databases, online. The first report of Cryptosporidium infection in the country was in 1985. Past more than 30 years, Cryptosporidium is not yet well-understood in the Philippines, but an increasing research interest has been observed among Filipinos in the past few years.  Recently, waterborne transmission of the infection appeared in the studies to be more potent than zoonotic and person-to-person transmissions. An improvement on the detection methods was also observed, giving an improved knowledge on the molecular diversity of Cryptosporidium in the country. Despite these improvements, the paucity of the data regarding the impact of Cryptosporidium to the public health in the Philippines is still apparent. One Health approach is recommended to fully understand the interconnections between human, animal, and environment as reservoirs of the infective stage of the parasite. Dedication of the researchers in understanding their geographical distribution, molecular diversity, and environmental and climatic behaviour will eventually uncover the public health implications of Cryptosporidium in the country.

Keywords: Cryptosporiodium, Philippines, Protozoan, Public Health, Waterborned, Zoonotic


Download data is not yet available.


[1]           A. Efstratiou, J.E. Ongerth, P. Karanis, “Waterborne transmission of protozoan parasites: review of worldwide outbreaks – an update 2011-2016,” Water Res vol. 114, pp. 14-22, May, 2017.

[2]           W. Checkley, A.C.C. White, D. Jaganath, M.J. Arrowood, R.M. Chalmers, X-M. Chen, et al., “A review of the global burden, novel diagnostics, therapeutics, and vaccine targets for Cryptosporidium,” The Lancet Infectious Disease vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 85-94, September, 2014.

[3]           L.B.R.O. De la Pena, E.J.A. Pagoso, W.L. Rivera, “Characterization of Cryptosporidium isolated from Asia green mussels sold in wet markets of Quezon City, Philippines,” Philipp Agric Scientist vol. 100, pp. S45-S54, July, 2017.

[4]           W.L. Rivera, E.J.A. Pagoso, “Cryptosporidium species from common edible bivalves in Manila Bay, Philippines,” Marine Pollution Bulletin vol. 119, no. 1, pp. 31-39, March, 2017.

[5]           R.V. Labana, J.Z. Dungca, V. Nissapatorn. “Community-based surveillance of Cryptosporidium in the indigenous community of Boliwong, Philippines, April to December 2017,” Epidemiology and Health, September, 2018.

[6]           D. Carmena, “Waterborne transmission of Cryptosporidium and Giardia: detection, surveillance, and implications for public health,” Current Research, Technology, and Education Topics in Applied Microbiology and Microbial Biotechnology, 2010.

[7]           V.G. Paller, P.M. Kim, M.E. Abadilla, A.M. Bordado, M. Galapon, L.E. Gamalo, et al., “Prevalence of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in selected recreational pools in Calamba, Laguna, Philippines,” Eco Env & Cons vol. 23, no. 4, pp. 1945-1951, July, 2017.

[8]           F.R. Masangkay, G.D. Milanez, N.E.R. Chua, et al., “Water-borne coccidians in Philippine water sheds: A national inceptive study,” Asian Journal of Biological and Life Sciences vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 112-119, March, 2016.

[9]           A.C. Rola, J.M. Pulhin, R.A. Hall, “Water policy in the Philippines: Issues, initiatives, and prospects,” Zwitzerland: Springer International Publishing, 2018.

[10]         Rappler, “55 die daily in PH from lack of proper sewerage. Rappler, Pasig City, Philippines” Manila, Philippines. Accessed from link 02 February 2018.

[11]         L. Xiao, R. Fayer, U. Ryan, S.J. Upton, “Cryptosporidium taxonomy: recent advances and implications for public health,” Clin Microbiol Rev vol. 17, pp. 72-97, January, 2004.

[12]         S. Tzipori, H. Ward, “Cryptosporidiosis: biology, pathogenesis and disease,” Microbes Infect vol. 4, no. 10, pp. 1047-58, August, 2002.

[13]         B. J. King, A.R. Keegan, P.T. Monis, C.P. Saint, “Environmental temperature controls Cryptosporidium oocyst metabolic rate and associated retention of infectivity,” Appl Environ Microbiol vol. 71, no. 7, pp. 3848–3857, July, 2005.

[14]         T. Slifko, R. Rose, H. Smith, “Emerging parasite zoonoses associated with water and food,” Int J Parasitol vol. 30, nos. 12-13, pp. 1379-1393, November, 2000.

[15]         R.A. Dillingham, A.A. Lima, R.L. Guerrant, “Cryptosporidiosis: Epidemiology and impact,” Microbes Infect vol. 4, pp.1059–66, August, 2002.

[16]         V.A. Cama, C. Bern, J. Roberts, L. Cabrera, C.R. Sterling, Y. Ortega, R.H. Gilman, L. Xiao, “Cryptosporidium Species and Subtypes and Clinical Manifestations in Children, Peru,” Emerging Infectious Diseases vol. 14, no. 10, pp. 567-1574, October, 2008.

[17]         M. Bouzid, P.R. Hunter, R.M. Chalmers, K.M. Tyler. “Cryptosporidium pathogenicity and virulence,” Clin Microbiol Rev vol. 26, pp. 115–34, January, 2013.

[18]         P. Karanis, K. Kourenti, H.V. Smith, “Waterborne transmission of protozoan parasites: a worldwide review of outbreaks and lesson learnt,” J Water Health vol. 5, pp. 1-38, March, 2007.

[19]         S. Baldursson, P. Karanis, “Waterborne transmission of protozoan parasites: review of worldwide outbreaks – an update 2004-2010,” Water Res vol. 6, no. 20, pp. 6603-6614, December, 2011.

[20]         V. Dietz, D. Vugia, R. Nelson, et al., “Active, multisite, laboratory-based surveillance for Cryptosporidium parvum,” Am J Trop Med Hyg vol. 62, no. 3, pp. 368-372, March, 2000.

[21]         Y. Lim, V. Nissapatorn, “Transmission of waterborne parasites in the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN): overview and directions forward,” Food and Waterborne Parasitology, December, 2017.

[22]         J.H. Cross, A. Alcantara, A. Alquiza, G. Zaraspe, C. Ranoa, “Cryptosporidiosis in Philippine children,” Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 257-260, June, 1985.

[23]         W.L. Rivera, J.A.D.L. Yason, P.T. Rivera, “Serological detection of Cryptosporidiosis among Filipino cancer patients,” Parasitol Res vol. 98, pp. 75-76, October, 2005.

[24]         F.G. Claveria, C. Alonzo, A.M. Bacal, Z.M. Mayugba, “Survey of Cryptosporidium sp. Infection in two impoverished communities in Metro Manila, Philippines,” J Protozool Res vol. 17, pp. 32-38, December, 2007.

[25]         F.F. Natividad, C.C. Buerano, C.B. Lago, C.A. Mapua, B.B. de Guzman, E.B. Seraspe, et al., “Prevalence rates of Giardia and Cryptosporidium among diarrheic patients in the Philippines,” Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health vol. 39, no. 6, pp. 991-999, November, 2008.

[26]         W.L. Rivera, J.A.D.L. Yason, “Molecular detection of Cryptosporidium from animal hosts in the Philippines,” The Philippine Agricultural Scientist vol. 91, no. 4, pp. 473-477, 2008.     

[27]         B.E. Omoruyi, U.U. Nwodo, C.S. Udem, F.O. Okonkwo, “Comparative diagnostic techniques for Cryptosporidium infection,” Molecules vol. 19, no. 2, pp. 2674-2683, February, 2014.

[28]         C.Y.J. Domingo, R.D.C. Ador-Dionision, G.C. Lanzanida, R.M. Corales, “Human and caprine cryptosporidiosis among smallhold farms in Aurora province, Philippines,” Philipp J Vet Anim Sci vol. 38, no. 1, pp. 53-62,  2012

[29]         J.S.Y. Ng-Hublin, G.R. Singleton, U. Ryan, “Molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium spp. from wild rats and mice from rural communities in the Philippines,” Infection, Genetic and Evolution vol. 16, pp. 5-12, June, 2013.

[30]         F. Murakoshi, F.C. Recuenco, T. Omatsu, et al., “Detection and molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium and Eimeria species in Philippine bats,” Parasitol Res, May, 2016.

[31]         M.T. Katanik, S.K. Schneider, J.E. Rosenblatt, G.S. Hall, G.W. Procop, “Evaluation of Color PAC Giardia/Cryptosporidium rapid assay and ProsPecTGiardia/Cryptosporidium microplate assay for detection of Giardia and Cryptosporidium in fecal specimens,” J Clin Microbiol vol. 39, pp. 4523-4525, December, 2001.

[32]         J.R. Limor, A.A. Lal, L. Xiao, “Detection and differentiation of Cryptosporidium parasites that are pathogenic for humans by real-time PCR,” J ClinMicrobiol vol. 40, pp. 2335–8, July, 2002.

[33]         J.A. Higgins, R. Fayer, J.M. Trout, L. Xiao, A.A. Lal, S. Kerby, “Real-time PCR for the detection of Cryptosporidium parvumJ Microbiol Methods vol. 47, pp. 323–37, December, 2001.

[34]         J. Cross, A. Alcantara, L. Alquiza, G. Zaraspe, C. Ranoa, “Cryptosporidiosis in Philippine children,” Southeast Asian J. Trop. Med. Publ. Hlth, vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 257-260, 1985.

[35]         M.A. Laxer, A.K. Alcantara, M. Javato-Laxer, M.D. Cui, R.A. Leano, S. Bautista, N. Ramilo, et al., “Cryptosporidium from Palawan, Republic of the Philippines,” The Philippine Journal of Microbiology and Infectious Disease vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 1-3, 1988.

[36]         J.H. Cross, G. Zaraspe, L. Alquiza, C. Ranoa, “Intestinal parasites in some patients seen at San Lazaro Hospital, Manila, Philippines,” Phil J Micbiol Infect Dis vol. 18, no.1, pp. 25-27, 1989.

[37]         M.A. Laxer, A.K. Alcantara, M. Javato-Laxer, D.M. Menorca, M.T. Fernando, C.P. Ranoa, “Immune response to Cryptosporidiosis in Philippine children,” Am J Trop Med Hyg vol. 42, no. 2, pp. 131-139, 1990.

[38]         E. Paje-Villar, B.G. Co, E.H. Caradang, A. Raymundo, E. Lagamayo, E. Lavadia, E. Rigor, C.A. Hart, “Non-bacterial diarrhoea in children in the Philippines,” Ann Trop Med Parasitol vol. 88, no. 1, pp. 53-8, February, 1994.

[39]         J.M.S. Velasco, I-K. Yoon, C.J. Mason, R.G. Jarman, “Applications of PCR (Real-Time and MassTag) and Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay in diagnosis of respiratory infections and diarrheal illness among deployed U.S. military personnel during Exercise Balikatan 2009, Philippines” Military Medicine vol. 176, no. 10, pp. 1096-1100, October, 2011.

[40]         C.Y.J. Domingo, P. Casao, B. Asuncion, “Cryptosporidium oocysts (Apicomplexa: Cryptosporidiidae) in the freshwater Asiatic clam, Corbicula fluminea O. F. Müller, 1774 (Bivalvia: Corbiculidae) from selected municipalities of Aurora, Philippines,” Phillip J Vet Med vol. 49, no. 2, pp. 83-87, 2012.

[41]         V.G. Paller, R.L. Salumbre, C.P.P. dela Cruz, “Asian clams as bio-indicator of Cryptosporidium contamination in Laguna de Bay,” Eco Env & Cons vol. 19, no. 3, pp. 635-642, 2013.

[42]         J. Hohweyer, A. Dumetre, D. Aubert, N. Azas, I, Villena, “Tools and methods for detecting and characterizing Giardia, Cryptosporidium, and Toxoplasma parasites in marine molluscs” J Food Prot vol. 76, pp. 1649-1657, September, 2013.

[43]         M. Villanueva, C. Domingo, N. Abes, C. Mingala, “Incidence and risk factors of Cryptosporidium spp. infection in Water Buffaloes confined in a communal management system in the Philippines” The Internet Journal of Veterinary Medicine vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 1-7, 2009.

[44]         S. Onichandran, T. Kumar, C.C. Salibay, et al., “Waterborne parasites: a current status from the Philippines,” Parasit Vectors vol. 7, pp. 244, May, 2014.

[45]         T.P. Monath, L.H. Kahn, B. Kaplan, “Introduction: One Health Perspective” ILAR Journal vol. 51, no. 3, pp. 193-198, 2010.

[46]         P.A. Conrad, L.A. Meek, J Dumit, “Operationalizing a One Health approach to global health challenges” Comparative Immunology, Microbiology, and Infectious Diseases vol. 36, pp. 211-216, 2013.

How to Cite
R. Labana, “Cryptosporidium in the Philippines”, Int. Ann. Sci., vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 18-27, Oct. 2018.
Short Review