Phytominerals and Phytochemical Studies of Azadiracthta indica, Leea guineensis and Parkia biglobosa Leaves
Medicinal plants have great importance in African medicine and are also used as precursors in drug discovery. The medicinal value of plants lie in their bioactive constituents which usually allow them to fight against several diseases. Plant-based natural constituents can be derived from any part of the plant like bark, leaves, flowers, roots, fruits, seeds. The mineral and phytochemical analysis of the leaves of Azadirachta indica, Parkia biglobosa and Leea guineensis were investigated. The leaves were collected from the Herbal Garden, Forestry Research Institute of Nigeria, Jericho hills, Ibadan, Nigeria and identified at Forest Herbarium Ibadan. Oyo State. The leaves were air dried and milled to powder using a medium-sized milling machine and stored in an air-tight container until needed for analysis. Phytochemical screening/analysis and mineral analysis were determined using standard analytical methods. Phytochemicals like Alkaloids, Flavonoids, Tannins, Saponins, Anthraquinone, Cardiac glycoside were determined. while Minerals, such as Potassium, Sodium determined using flame photometer; Calcium, Phosphorus, Magnesium, Iron, Zinc, Manganese, and Copper were determined using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. Results indicates that the bioactive contents of the leaves varied significantly (p<0.05) among the medicinal plants. The phytochemical analysis showed that the three medicinal plants contained alkaloid, saponins, tannins, flavonoids, polyphenols, cardiac glycoside and anthraquinone in varying quantities with the trend: A indica > P. biglobosa > L. guineensis; the macro elements showed similar trend as the phytochemicals while the micro elements followed the trend: P. biglobosa > L. guineensis > A indica. These results conceivably indicate that the three medicinal plant are good source of essential minerals and phyto-nutrients which possess strong pharmacological activities and provide scientific credence for its therapeutic usage.
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