Phytominerals and Phytochemical Studies of Azadiracthta Indica, Leea Guineensis and Parkia Biglobosa Leaves
Medicinal plants have great importance in African medicine and are also used as precursors in drug discovery. The medicinal value of a plant lies in its bioactive constituents which usually allows them to fight against several diseases. Plant-based natural constituents can be derived from any part of the plant like bark, leaves, flowers, roots, fruits, seeds. The mineral and phytochemical analysis of the leaves of Azadirachta indica, Parkia biglobosa and Leea guineensis were investigated. The leaves were collected from the Herbal Garden, Forestry Research Institute of Nigeria, Jericho hills, Ibadan, Nigeria and identified at Forest Herbarium Ibadan. Oyo State. The leaves were air dried and milled to powder using a medium-sized milling machine and stored in an air-tight container until needed for analysis. Phytochemical screening/analysis and mineral analysis were determined using standard analytical methods. Phytochemicals like Alkaloids, Flavonoids, Tannins, Saponins, Anthraquinone, Cardiac glycoside were determined. while Minerals, such as Potassium, Sodium determined using flame photometer; Calcium, Phosphorus, Magnesium, Iron, Zinc, Manganese, and Copper were determined using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. Results indicates that the bioactive contents of the leaves varied significantly (p<0.05) among the medicinal plants. The phytochemical analysis showed that the three medicinal plants contained alkaloid, saponins, tannins, flavonoids, polyphenols, cardiac glycoside and anthraquinone in varying quantities with the trend: A indica > P. biglobosa > L. guineensis; the macro elements showed similar trend as the phytochemicals while the micro elements followed the trend: P. biglobosa > L. guineensis > A indica. These results conceivably indicate that the three medicinal plant are good source of essential minerals and phyto-nutrients which possess strong pharmacological activities and provide scientific credence for its therapeutic usage.
 B. Beyene, B. Beyene, and H. Deribe, “Review on Application and Management of Medicinal Plants for the Livelihood of the Local Community” Journal of Resources Development and Management, vol 22, pp 33-39. 2016.
 E. E. Patrick, I. J. Atangwho, U. E. Eyong and G. E. Egbung, The Antidiabetic Efficacy of Combined Extracts from Two Continental Plants: Azadirachta indica (A. Juss) (Neem) and Vernonia amygdalina (Del.) (African Bitter Leaf) American Journal of Biochemistry and Biotechnology. vol. 4, no. 3, pp 239-244, 2008.
 A. S. Kamba and L. G. Hassan, “Phytochemical screening and antimicrobial activities of Euphorbia balsamifera leaves, stems and root against some pathogenic microorganisms” African Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, vol 4, no 9, pp 645-652, 2010.
 H. O. Edeoga, and D. O. Eriata, Alkaloid, Tannin and Saponin contents of some medicinal plants. Journal of Medicinal Aromatic Plant Science, vol. 23, no 3, pp 344-349, 2001.
 D. Veeramuth, A. Muniappan, and I. Savarimuthu, Antimicrobial activity of some ethno medicinal plants used by Paliyar tribe from Tamil Nadu, India. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, vol. 6, pp 35, 2006.
 D. E. Okwu, “Phytochemical and Vitamin Content of Indigenous Species of South- Eastern Nigeria” Journal of Sustainable Agriculture and the Environment, vol 6, no 1, pp 30-37, 2004.
 D. E. Okwu, and O. Ekeke, Phytochemical screening and mineral composition of chewing sticks in south Eastern Nigeria. Global journal of Pure and Applied Science, vol. 9, no 2 pp 235-238, 2003.
 R. Abhishek. Toxicological effect of Azadirachta indica, Asian Journal of Multidisciplinary Studies, vol. 2, no. 9, pp 29-33. 2014.
 M. A. Alzohairy. Therapeutics role of Azadirachta indica (Neem) and their active constituents in diseases prevention and treatment. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 2016.
 Itelima, J. U., Nwokedi, V. C., Ogbonna, A. I., Nyam, M. A. (2016). Phytochemical screening and antimicrobial activity evaluation of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of the leaf of Azadirachta indica Juss (neem) on some microorganisms. World Journal of Microbiology, 3(1), 56–60.
 Vinoth, B., Manivasagaperumal, R., & Rajaravindran, M. (2012). Phytochemical Analysis and Antibacterial Activity of Azadirachta indica A Juss. International Journal of Research in Plant Science, 2(3), 50–55.
 Mohammed, H. A., & Omer, A. F. A. (2015). Antibacterial Activity of Azadirachta indica ( Neem ) Leaf Extract against Bacterial Pathogens in Sudan. American Journal of Research Communication, 3(5), 246–251.
 M. O. Omojola, M. O. Afolayan, A. B. Adebiyi, J. O. Orijajogun, S. A. Thomas and N. E. Ihegwuagu. Further physicochemical characterization of Parkia biglobosa (Jacq.) Benth fruit pulp as a mineral supplement. African Journal of Biotechnology, vol. 10, no. 75, pp 17258-17264, 2011.
 O. O. Bridget, S. F. Olumuyiwa, A. O. Bolanie, and S. R. A. Adewusi, Biochemical changes in African locust bean (Parkia biglobosa) and Melon (Citrullus vulgaris) seeds during fermentation to condiments. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition. vol. 3, no 3 pp 140-145, 2004.
 C. Orwa, A. Mutua, R. Kindt, R. Jamnadass, and A. Simons, Agroforestry Database: a tree reference and selection guide version 4.0 pp. 1-4, 2009.
 E. O. Ajaiyeoba, Phytochemical and antibacterial properties of Parkia biglobosa and Parkia bicolor leaf extracts. Afr. J. Biomed. Res, vol. 5, pp 125–129, 200
 A. A Odetola, O. Akinloye, C. Egunjobi, W. A. Adekunle, A. O. Ayoola, Possible antidiabetic and anti-hyperlipidaemic effect of fermented Parkia biglobosa (JACQ) extract in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology and Physiology vol. 33, pp 808–812, 2006.
 B. O. Ajiboye, A. O. Oso, O. S. “Kobomoje, Chemical Composition and Nutritional Evaluation of Leea guineensis Seed” International Journal of Food Sciences Nutrition and Dietetics, vol 3, no 2, pp 94-98, 2014.
 B. O. Ajiboye, S. O. Salawu, B. Okezie, B. E. Oyinloye, A. O. Ojo, S. A. Onikanni, A. O. Oso, O. S. Asoso and T. O. Obafemi. Mitigating potential and antioxidant properties of aqueous seed extract of Leea guineensis against dichlorovos-induced toxicity in Wistar rats. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health Sciences, vol 6, no 7, pp 132-146, 2014.
 C. A. Pieme, V. N. Penlap, B. Nkegoum, C. L. Taziebou, J. Ngogang, “In Vivo Antioxidant and Potential Antitumor Activity Extract of Leea Guineensis Royen Ex. L. (Leeaceae) on Carcinomatous Cells” Pharmacologyonline, vol 1, pp 538-547, 2008.
 A.O. Falodun, L.O. Okunrobo, and L. O. Agbo, Evaluation of the anti-edematogenic activity of the aqueous extract of Leea guineensis. African Journal of Biotechnology. vol. 6, no. 9, pp 1151-1153, 2007.
 A.G. Boye, G. A. Koffuor, J. N. Boampong, P. A. Amoateng, E. O. Ameyaw, E. O. Ansah, G. M. Addai, C. K. Adjei, J. Addo, and D. K. A. Penu, ‘Gastroprotective effect and safety assessment of Zanthoxylum zanthoxyloides (Lam) Waterm root bark extract’ American Journal of Pharmacy and Toxicology vol. 7, no. 2, pp 73–80, 2012.
 B. E. Omoruyi, G. Bradley, and A. J. Afolayan, ‘Antioxidant and phytochemical properties of Carpobrotus edulis (L.) bolus leaf used for the management of common infections in HIV/AIDS patients in Eastern Cape Province’, BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 12, 215, 2012.
 B. O. Mbaebie, H. O. Edeoga, and A. J. Afolayan, Phytochemical analysis and antioxidants activities of aqueous of stem bark extract of Schotia latifolia Jacq. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine vol. 2, no. 2, pp 118-124, 2012.
 A. H. Uddin, R. S. Khalid, M. Alaama, A. M. Abdualkader, A. Kasmuri and S. A. Abbas. Comparative study of three digestion methods for elemental analysis in traditional medicine products using atomic absorption spectrometry. Journal of Analytical Science and Technology, vol 7, no 6, 2016.
 W. C. Evans. Trease and Evans Pharmacognosy, 15th edition. W.B Sauders Company Ltd, London. pp 137-139, 230-240, 2002.
 F. O Omotayo and Temitope. I. Borokini. ‘Comparative phytochemical and ethnomedicinal survey of selected medicinal plants in Nigeria’, Scientific Research and Essays vol. 7, no. 9, pp 989–999, 2012.
 S. D. Oyeyemi, S. Arowosegbe, and A. O. Adebiyi, ‘Phytochemical and proximate evaluation of Myrianthus arboreus (P. Beau.) and Spargonophorus sporgonophora (Linn.) leaves’, IOSR Journal of Agriculture and Veterinary Science vol. 7, no. 9, pp 01–05, 2014.
 A. Geyid, A. Dawi, D. Asfaw, M. Zewdneh, T. Frehiwot, K., Tesfaye, U. Kelbessa, Y. Kidst, B. Tekle, H. M. Bisrat and G. Mulugeta. Screening of some medicinal plants of Ethiopia for their anti-microbial properties and chemical profiles. Journal of Ethnopharmcology, 97: 421-427. 2005.
 T. I. Borokini, and F. O. Omotayo, Phytochemical and ethnobotanical study of some selected medicinal plants from Nigeria. Journal of Medicinal Plants Research, vol. 6 no 7, pp. 1106-1118, 2012.
 O. K. Ndukwe, D. Awomukwu, and C. F Ukpabi, Comparative Evaluation of Phytochemical and Mineral Constituents of the Leaves of some Medicinal Plants in Abia State Nigeria. International Journal of Academic Research in Progressive Education and Development. vol. 2, no. 3, pp 244-252, 2013.
 J. L. Harry-Asobara, and E. O. Samson. Comparative Study of the Phytochemical Properties of Jatropha curcas and Azadirachta indica Plant Extracts. Journal of Poisonous and Medicinal Plants Research vol. 2, no. 2, pp 020-024, 2014.
 B. W. Norton, The Significance of Tannins in Tropical Animal Production. Tannins in Livestock and Human Nutrition. ACIAR Proceedings No. vol. 92, pp 14-2, 2000.
 S. Ghosal, B. N. Krishna-Prasad, and V. Laksmi, Anti-amoebic activity of Piper longum fruits against Entamoeba histolytica in vivo. Journal of Ethno-pharmacology. vol. 50, no 3 pp 167-170, 1996.
 J. C Okaka, N. J Enoch, N. C Okaka, Human nutrition: An integrated approach. ESUT Publication Enugu pp 57-58, 1992.
 A. Kujumgiev, I. Tsevetkova, Y. Serkedjivay, V. Bankova, R. Christov, and S. Popov, Antibacterial, Antifungal and Antiviral Activity of Propolis of different geographic Origin. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. vol. 44, pp 35-40, 1999.
 S. Kumar and A. K. Pandey. Chemistry and biological activities of flavonoids: an overview. The Scientific World Journal, vol. 16, 2013.
 J. W. Erdman Jr, D. Balentine, L. Arab, G. Beecher, J. T. Dwyer, J. Folts J. Harnly, P. Hollman, C. L. Keen, G. Mazza, M. Messina, A. Scalbert, J. Vita, G. Williamson, J. Burrowes. Flavonoids and Heart Health: proceedings of the ILSI North America Flavonoids Workshop, May-June1, 2005. Journal of Nutrition. vol. 137, no. 3, pp 718-737, 2007.
 R. K. Murray, D. K. Granner, P. A. Mayes, V. W. Rodwell, Harper’s Biochemistry, 25th Edition, McGraw-Hill, Health Profession Division, USA, 2000.
 S. Sharma, P. Mahotra, A. K. Bhattacharyya, Effect of electroplating industrial waste on ‘‘available phosphorus’’ of soil in relation to other physico-chemical properties. Afr. J. Environ. Sci. Technol. vol. 2, no. 9, pp 257-264, 2008.
 E. D. Fagbohun, O. U. Lawal, M. E. Ore. The proximate, mineral and phytochemical analysis of the leaves of Ocimum gratissimum L., Melanthera scandens A. and Leea guineensis L. and their medicinal value. International Journal of Applied Biology and Pharmaceutical Technology, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 15-22. 2011.
 M. B. Olaniyi, I. O. Lawal and A. A. Olaniyi. Proximate, phytochemical screening and mineral analysis of Crescentia cujete L. leaves. Journal of Medicinal Plants for Economic Development, vol. 2, no. 1 pp, a28. 2018.
 Y. R. Chavan, S. V. Thite, V. T. Aparadh, and B. A. Kore, Quantification of minerals in some members of family Asteraceae. World journal of pharmaceutical research vol. 3, no. 6, pp 613-617, 2014.
 National Research Commission (NRC), Recommended dietary allowances by National Research Council, National Academy Press, Washington, DC, 1989.
 E. D. Paul, R. S. A. Sangodare, R. I. Uroko, A. S. Agbaji, and M. A. Dakare, Chemical analysis of leaves of Abrus precatorius. International Journal of Plant Physiology and Biochemistry. vol. 5, no. 5, Pp. 65-67, 2013.
 L. G. Hassan, F. N. Abdulrahaman, and A. A. Zuru, ‘Nutritional and phytochemical investigation of Diospyros mespiliformis (L.)’, Nigerian Journal of Basic Applied Science. vol. 13, pp 1–8, 2004.
 A. O. Oko, J. C Okigbo, J. N. Idenyi, and L. U. Ehihia, ‘Nutritional and Phytochemical compositions of the leaves of Mucuna poggei’, Journal of Biology and Life Science vol. 3, no. 1, pp 232–240, 2012.
 C. Rathanavel and P. T. Arasu, Quantification of heavy metals and minerals in selected Indian medicinal plants using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Int J. Pharm Bio Sci, vol. 4. no. 3, pp. 897-908, 2013.
 W. B. Farquhar, D. G. Edwards, C. T. Jurkovitz and W. S. Weintraub. Dietary Sodium and Health: More Than Just Blood Pressure. J. Am Coll Cardiol. vol 65. no. 10, pp1042-1050, 2015.
 R. Nieder, D. K. Benbi, F. X. Reichl. Microelements and Their Role in Human Health. In: Soil Components and Human Health. Springer, Dordrecht. 2018.
Copyright (c) 2018 Olamilekan Lanre Awotedu, P. O. Ogunbamowo, I. B. Emmanuel, I. O. Lawal
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
Author(s) retains full copyright of their article and grants non-exclusive publishing right to International Annals of Science and its publisher “AIJR (India)”. Author(s) can archive pre-print, post-print and published version/PDF to any open access, institutional repository, social media or personal website provided that Published source must be acknowledged with citation and link to publisher version.
Click here for more information on Copyright policy
Click here for more information on Licensing policy