Impact of Effective Microorganisms on the Microbiological and Physicochemical Parameters of Produced Water

Authors

  • Herbert Okechukwu Stanley University of Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria
  • Ekoh Philip Efua Department of Microbiology, University of Port Harcourt, Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.21467/ias.3.1.6-12

Abstract

The study investigated the impact of effective microorganisms on the microbiological and physicochemical parameters of produced water. Produced water was obtained from Ebocha oil field within Rivers state. The spread plate method was used to determine the total heterotrophic bacterial counts, and pure isolates were subjected to biochemical characterization. Pure bacterial suspension of Lactobacillus plantarum, Aspergillus sp. and Penicillium italicum were obtained and subsequently inoculated into wastewater sample in consortium. Treated (with the consortium) wastewater sample was analyzed at interval for their physicochemical and microbiological parameters during the appropriate period of incubation (14 days) at room temperature. The bacterial load of produced water decreased from 1.3 x 108 cfu/ml to 3.6 x 107 cfu/ml, coliform counts increased from 2.0 x 105 cfu/ml to 1.4 x 106 cfu/ml, Staphylococcal counts decreased from 3.4 x 105 cfu/ml to 0 cfu/ml and Vibrio counts decreased from 8.0 x 105 cfu/ml to 2.0 x 105 cfu/ml. Biochemical characterization of bacterial isolates from the wastewater revealed the presence of Enterobacter sp, Bacillus sp, Klebsiella sp, Proteus sp, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus sp. The pH and temperature ranges of water sample during the period of treatment varied. The BOD values decreased from 240 mg/L to 21 mg/L while the COD values decreased from 400 mg/L to 160 mg/L. The results of the heavy metal assessment revealed an appreciable reduction in the heavy metal concentrations of the sample. The concentration of zinc in produced water decreased from 0.113 mg/L to an undetectable level (< 0.01 mg/L), iron concentration decreased from 1.071 mg/L to 0.139 mg/L, Nickel decreased from 2.110 mg/L to 1.081 mg/L while copper and cadmium were undetected. The use of effective microorganisms in the treatment of produced water was effective in the reduction of microbial load, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD) and removal of heavy metals.

Keywords:

Effective microorganisms, Produced water, Heavy metals, Water treatment

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

Author Biographies

Herbert Okechukwu Stanley, University of Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria

Senior Lecturer, Department of Microbiology

Ekoh Philip Efua, Department of Microbiology, University of Port Harcourt, Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria

Microbiologist Officer, Fidson Healthcare Plc, Ogun State, Nigeria

References

<ul>
<li>Chan, Y.J., Chong, F., Law, C.L. and Hassell, D.G. (2006). A Review on anaerobic–aerobic treatment of industrial and municipal wastewater. <em>Chemical Engineering Journal.</em> 155 1–18.</li>
<li>Saliu, J.K. and Eruteya, O.J. (2006). Biodiversity of gutters in Lagos Metropolis. Nigeria. <em>Journal of Biological Sciences</em>. 6 (5): 936–940.</li>
<li>Mahgoub, S., Samaras, P., Abdelbasit, H., Abdelfattah, H. and Hamed, S. (2014). Microbiological and physico-chemical characteristics of municipal wastewater at treatment plants.</li>
<li>Dhote, S. and Dixit, S. (2009). Water quality improvements through macrophytes- a review, <em>Environmental Monitoring and Assessment</em>. 152, 149-153.</li>
<li>Sangakkara, U.R. (2002). The technology of effective microorganisms – case studies of application’ Royal Agricultural College, Cirencester. UK Research Activities.</li>
<li>Daly, M.J. and Arnst, B. (2005). The use of an innovative microbial technology (EM) for enhancing vineyard production and recycling waste from the winery back to the land. The 15th IFOAM Organic World Congress Adelaide.</li>
<li>Zakaria, Z., Gairola, S. and Shariff,&nbsp; M. (2010). Effective Microorganisms (EM) Technology for Water Quality Restoration and Potential for Sustainable Water Resources and Management. 2010 International Congress on Environmental Modelling and Software Modelling for Environment’s Sake, Fifth Biennial Meeting, Ottawa, Canada.</li>
<li>APHA (2005). Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater. 21<sup>St</sup> edition, American Public Health Association, Washington DC.</li>
<li>Holt, J.G. (1994). Bergey’s Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9<sup>th</sup></li>
<li>Yateem, A. (2008). Isolation of lactic acid bacteria with probiotic potential from camel milk. <em>International Journal of Dairy Science. </em>3:194-199.</li>
<li>Miller, L.G. and Kaspar, C.W. (1994). <em>Escherichia coli </em>O157:H7 acid tolerance and survival in apple cider. <em>Journal of Food Protection</em>. 57:460-464.</li>
<li>Lin, J., Lee, I.S., Frey, J., Slonczewski, J.S. and Foster, J.W. (1995). Comparative analysis of extreme acid survival in <em>Salmonella </em><em>typhimurium</em>, <em>Shigella flexneri </em>and <em>Escherichia coli</em>. <em>Journal of Bacteriology</em>. 177:4097-4104.</li>
<li>Adams M.R. and Nicolaides, L. (1997). Review of the sensiti­vity of different foodborne pathogens to fermentation. <em>Food Control</em>. <em>8</em>: 227–239.</li>
<li>Sonune, N.A. and Garode, A.M. (2015). Bioremediation potential of bacterial isolates for municipal wastewater treatment. <em>Current World Environment. </em>10 (2).</li>
<li>Shrivastava, J.N., Verma, S. and Kumar, V. (2013). Bioremediation of Yamuna water by mono and dual bacterial isolates. <em>Industrial Journal Science Resource and Tech</em> 1(1): 56-60.</li>
<li>Prasad, M.P. and Manjunath, K. (2011). Comparative study on biodegradation of lipid rich wastewater using lipase producing bacterial species. <em>Industrial Journal of Biotechnology.</em> 10: 121-124</li>
<li>World Health Organization, WHO (2007). Combating Waterborne Diseases at the HouseholdLevel.Part1.</li>
<li>FEPA (1999). Federal Environmental Protection Agency. US National series.</li>
<li>NSDWQ (2007). Nigerian standards for drinking water quality: standards on quality of surface and ground water. Federal Ministry / Agency in charge of Environment. Federal Ministry of Water Resources, Nigeria.</li>
<li>Velagaleti, R. and Burns, P. K. (2006). The Industrial ecology of pharmaceutical raw materials and finished products with emphasis on supply chain management activities.</li>
<li>Ng, W.J. (2006). Industrial wastewater treatment, world scientific publishing company.</li>
<li>Olukanni, D. O., Agunwamba, J. C. and Ugwu, E. I. (2014). &nbsp;Biosorption of heavy metals in industrial wastewater using micro-organisms (<em>Pseudomonas aeruginosa</em>). <em>American Journal of Scientific and&nbsp; Industrial Res</em> 5(2): 81-87.</li>
<li>Fosso-Kankeu, E. and Mulaba-Bafubiandi, A. F. (2014). Implication of plants and microbial metalloproteins in the bioremediation of polluted waters: a review. <em>Physics and Chemistry of Earth</em>. 67–69 242–252.</li>
</ul>
<p>&nbsp;</p>

Downloads

Published

2017-11-17

Issue

Section

Research Article

How to Cite

[1]
H. O. Stanley and E. P. Efua, “Impact of Effective Microorganisms on the Microbiological and Physicochemical Parameters of Produced Water”, Int. Ann. Sci., vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 6-12, Nov. 2017.