Semen Analysis and Morphological Study of Two Subsequent Generations of Dietary Protein Deficient Sprague Dawley Rats
Adequate supply of dietary protein in regular diet is an important element of a proper nutritional status as it functions in the regulation of metabolic profiles signaling the reproductive axis. Reports have highlighted the association of the amount of protein in the diet to the functioning of hypothalamic-pituitary-testis axis, however its intragenerational effects are yet to be adequately explored. The study aims to analyze the effect of protein deficient diet on parameters associated with male infertility from one generation to another. Female rats in four (4) groups (n=10) were fed different ration of protein in their diet (PD) as formulated: 21%PD, 10%PD, 5%PD and control diet (rat chow), through gestation and lactation to first and second generations, while the male offspring sustained on the maternal diet after weaning were used for analysis. Sperm morphology and motility were evaluated using a light microscope and a computer-assisted semen analysis. The percentage of motile spermatozoa, morphological characteristics and histology in the deficient groups (5%, 10%PD) appeared normal as compared to control in the first generation, showing an adaptive response while second generation was presented with significantly altered fertility parameters of the male offspring. It is suggested that in a deficiency status especially at the critical phase of development, certain deleterious effects which may be adaptive or phenotypic can serve to reduce the fertility efficiency in the male offspring at both F1 and F2- generation.
Keywords:Semen, motility, protein deficiency, testicular morphology, testosterone
P. Gurung, E. Yetiskul & I. Jialal, “Physiology, Male Reproductive System”, In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL), StatPearls Publishing; Jan, 2020. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK538429/
T. Mann & C. Lutwak-Mann, “Male Reproductive Function and the Composition of Semen: General Considerations” Male Reproductive Function and Semen, pp 1–37. Jan, 1981. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4471-1300-3_1
S. Vijayaraghavan, “Sperm Motility: Patterns and Regulation”, Introduction to Mammalian Reproduction. Springer, Chap. 5, pp. 79-91, Jan, 2003 https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4615-0273-9_5
V. Sapanidou, I. Taitzoglou, I. Tsakmakidis, I. Kourtzelis, D. Fletouris, A. Theodoridis, S. Lavrentiadou & M. Tsantarliotou, “Protective effect of crocetin on bovine spermatozoa against oxidative stress during in vitro fertilization”, Andrology, vol.4, no. 6, pp. 1138-1149. Nov, 2016. doi:10.1111/andr.12248
World Health Organization. “Global Nutrition Report”, Nov. 2018, Retrieved from: https://www.who.int/nutrition/globalnutritionreport/en/.
A. Agarwal, A. Mulgund, A. Hamada, M.R. Chyatte, “A unique view on male infertility around the globe”, Reprod Biol Endocrinol. Vol. 13, pp37. Apr, 2015. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12958-015-0032-1
World Health Organization. “Malnutrition”. Apr, 2020. Retrieved from: https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/malnutrition.
G. Wu, B. Imhoff-Kunsch, A. W. Girardc “Biological Mechanisms for Nutritional Regulation of Maternal Health and Fetal Development”, Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology, vol. 26 no S1, pp 4–26, Jun, 2012, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-3016.2012.01291.x
P. K. Ajuogu, M. A. Al-Aqbi, R. A. Hart, M. Wolden, N.A. Smart, & J. R. McFarlane, “The effect of dietary protein intake on factors associated with male infertility: A systematic literature review and meta-analysis of animal clinical trials in rats”, Nutrition and Health, vol.26, no 1, pp 1-12, Jan, 2020. https://doi.org/10.1177/0260106019900731
N.R. Rao, “New Nonpurified Diet (NTP-2000) for Rodents in the National Toxicology Program's Toxicology and Carcinogenesis Studies”, The Journal of Nutrition, Vol. 127, no 5, pp 842S–846S, May, 1997. https://doi.org/10.1093/jn/127.5.842S.
A. F. Silas, A.O. Ayorinde, E. Daisy, O.M. Sogunle, O.B. Oluwole, and N.G. Elemo “Effect of stocking density and quantitative feed restriction on growth performance, digestibility, haematological characteristics and cost of starting broiler chicks”, J. Anim. Health & Prod., vol 2, no 4, pp 60-64, Oct, 2014. http://dx.doi.org/10.14737/journal.jahp/2014/184.108.40.206
Y. Raji, S.O. Akinsomisoye, T. M. Salman, “Antispermato1genic activity of Morinda lucida extract in male rats”, Asian J. Androl. Vol.7 no 4, pp 405-410, Dec, 2005. doi:10.1111/j.1745-7262.2005.00051.x
N. N. Oliveira,. P. M. Félix, M. A. R. Pereira, T. C. S. Rocha, L. G. P., Miranda, J. R., Zangeronimo, M. G., …, R. V. de Sousa, “Sperm Quality and Testicular Histomorphometry of Wistar Rats Supplemented with Extract and Fractions of Fruit of Tribulus terrestris L”, Brazilian Archives of Biology and Technology, vol. 58, no 6, pp 891–897. Dec, 2015. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1516-89132015060278.
J. S. Ashidi, F. O. Owagboriaye, F.B. Yaya, D.E. Payne, O.I. Lawal, & S.O. Owa, “Assessment of reproductive function in male albino rat fed dietary meal supplemented with Mucuna pruriens seed powder”, Heliyon, vol.5, no 10, Oct, 2019. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.heliyon.2019.e02716
J.O. Omirinde, P. C. Ozegbe, M. O. Oyeyemi. “Comparative evaluation of the sperm characteristics and morphology of adult Wistar rats fed either low or normal protein-energy diets and orally dosed with aqueous Cuscuta australis extracts”. Niger. J. Physiol. Sci, vol. 29 no 1 pp 055–061, Jun, 2014. PMID: 26196567, https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/26196567/
F. Tüttelmann, C. Ruckert & Albrecht Röpke, "Disorders of spermatogenesis, Perspectives for novel genetic diagnostics after 20 years of unchanged routine," Med Genet. vol. 30, no. 1, pp. 12-20, Feb, 2018. doi: 10.1007/s11825-018-0181-7
P.C. Ozegbe, and J.O. Omirinde, “Comparative morphophysiological evaluation of the testis of adult Wistar rats fed low protein-energy diet and dosed with aqueous extracts of Cuscuta australis”, Niger. J. Physiol. Sci., vol. 27, no 2, pp 149-155, Dec, 2012. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/23652229/
H.A. Sharaf, F.A. Morsy, N.M. Shaffie, A.T.M. El-Shennawy, “Histological and Histochemical Study on the Protective Effect of Curcumin on Ultraviolet Irradiation Induced Testicular Damage in Albino Rats”, J Cytol Histol vol. 3 no 6, pp 159. Nov, 2012, DOI:10.4172/2157-7099.1000159
G. L. Rodríguez-González, L. A. Reyes-Castro, C. C. Vega, L Boeck, C. Ibanez, P. W. Nathanielsz, F. Larrea, E. Zambrano, “Accelerated aging of reproductive capacity in male rat offspring of protein-restricted mothers is associated with increased testicular and sperm oxidative stress”. Age (Dordr). vol. 36, no. 6, pp. 9721, Oct, 2014. doi:10.1007/s11357-014-9721-5
E. Mylchreest, M. Sar, D. G. Wallace & P.M.D. Foster, “Fetal testosterone insufficiency and abnormal proliferation of Leydig cells and gonocytes in rats exposed to di(n-butyl) phthalate,” Reproductive Toxicology. Vol 16, no. 1, pp. 19-28, Jan, 2002. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0890-6238(01)00201-5
V. B. Mutwedu, R. B. B. Ayagirwe, S. B. Bacigale, L. M. Mwema, S. Butseme, T. Kashosi, B. Mitima, G. J. Manyawu & A. W. Nyongesa, “Effect of dietary inclusion of small quantities of Mucuna pruriens seed meal on sexual behavior, semen characteristics, and biochemical parameters in rabbit bucks (Oryctolagus cuniculus).” Trop Anim Health Prod. vol. 51, no. 5, pp. 1195-1202, Jun, 2019. doi:10.1007/s11250-019-01808-2.
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2020 Nosarieme Omoregie Abey, Osaretin Albert Taiwo Ebuehi
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
Author(s) retains full copyright of their article and grants non-exclusive publishing right to International Annals of Science and its publisher “AIJR (India)”. Author(s) can archive pre-print, post-print and published version/PDF to any open access, institutional repository, social media or personal website provided that Published source must be acknowledged with citation and link to publisher version.
Click here for more information on Copyright policy
Click here for more information on Licensing policy