A Simple PCR Assay for Discrimination of Dengue Vectors from Nsukka LGA, Nigeria
Mosquitoes of Aedes species are vectors of several arboviral diseases which continue to be a major public health problem in Nigeria. This study among other things, morphologically identified Aedes mosquitoes collected from Nsukka LGA and used an allele specific PCR amplification for discrimination of dengue vectors. Larval sampling, BG-sentinel traps and modified human landing catches were used for mosquito sampling in two selected autonomous communities of Nsukka LGA (Nsukka and Obimo). A total of 124 Aedes mosquitoes consisting of five (5) different species were collected from April to June, 2019 in a cross-sectional study that covered 126 households, under 76 distinct geographical coordinates. Larvae was mainly collected from plastic containers 73% (n=224), metallic containers 14% (n=43), earthen pots 9% (n=29) and used car tyres 3% (n=9), reared to adult stage 69.35% (n=86), and all mosquitoes were identified using standard morphological keys. Five (5) Aedes mosquito species were captured; Aedes aegypti 83(66.94%), Aedes albopictus 33(26.61%), Aedes simpsoni (4.48%), Aedes luteocephalus (≤1%) and Aedes vittatus (≤1%). Nsukka autonomous community had higher species diversity than Obimo. Allele specific amplification confirmed dengue vectors, Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus species on a 2% agarose gel. Since the most recent re-emergence of arboviral diseases is closely associated with Aedes species, findings of this study, therefore, give further evidence about the presence of potential arboviral vectors in Nigeria and describe the role of a simple PCR in discriminating some. Further entomological studies should integrate PCR assays in mosquito vector surveillance.
Keywords:Aedes aegypti, Aedes albopictus, Dengue
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