Prevalence of Intestinal Helminth Infections of Stray Dogs of Public Health Significance in Lagos Metropolis, Nigeria
Globally, stray dogs have been a major source of zoonoses such as cutaneous larval migrans, visceral larval migrans and hydatidosis. These dogs are recognized as being a major public health problem where their population is unchecked. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of intestinal helminth parasites of stray dogs in Lagos metropolis. Stools of 96 stray dogs were examined microscopically for ova of these parasites using centrifugation flotation method. Four species of intestinal helminths were identified. The overall prevalence of helminths infection was 61.4%, with Ancylostoma caninum having a prevalence of 62.5%, Toxocara canis 20.8%, Dipylidium caninum 18.7% and Strongyloides stercoralis 2.0%. T. canis had the highest worm burden of 1,250 egg per gram (EPG) while S. stercoralis had the least (100 EPG). The areas with the most helminth infections were Yaba (n=12, X̄=1.58, SD=0.793), Agege (n=11, X̄=1.73, SD=0.786) and Ikotun (n=11, X̄=1.45, SD=0.820). S. stercoralis was only found in samples obtained from Mushin and Ikorodu. Most of the stool samples obtained from this study had mixed infections, 83.3% were infected with three helminth species, 8.3% were infected with four helminth species and none had double infection. Mushin had the most mixed infections (n=4, X̄=1.900, SD=1.101) while Obalende had the least (n=1, X̄=1.000, SD=0.000). Most of the intestinal helminth parasites identified in this study are zoonotic and thus pose a public health problem. Environmental factors seem to influence the health condition of these dogs, thus concerted efforts should be made to reduce the growing population of stray dogs on the street of Lagos.
 World Atlas (2019). How Many Dogs Are There In The World? View
 J. L. Heeney, “Zoonotic viral diseases and the frontier of early diagnosis, control and prevention,” J Intern Med., vol., 260, no. 5, pp. 399-408, 2006.
 R. J. Traub, I. D. Robertson, P. Irwin, N. Mencke, R. C. A. Thompson, “The Role of Dogs in Transmission of Gastrointestinal Parasites in a Remote Tea-Growing Community in Northeastern India,” Am J Trop Med Hyg., vol. 67, no. 5, pp. 539-545, 2002.
 N. N. Chidumayo, “Epidemiology of canine gastrointestinal helminths in sub-Saharan Africa. Parasites & Vectors,” vol. 11, no. 100, pp. 1-7, 2018.
 K. U. Ezema, S. A. Malgwi, M. K. Zango, F. Kyari, S. M. Tukur, A. Mohammed, B. K. Kayeri, “Gastrointestinal parasites of dogs (Canis familiaris) in Maiduguri, Borno State, Northeastern Nigeria: Risk factors and zoonotic implications for human health,” Veterinary World, vol. 7, no. 12, pp. 1150-1153, 2019.
 M.F. Per, P. M. Ikye-Tor, A. E. Uwondo and D. O. Esonu, “Prevalence of Zoonotic Gastrointestinal Helminth Parasites (ZGIHP) of Dogs Presented to the Small Animal Clinic of the Veterinary Teaching Hospital, University of Agriculture, Makurdi, Benue State (October 2016-January 2017),” Scientific Research Journal (SCIRJ), vol. 7, no. 8, pp. 73-77, Aug., 2019.
 I.K. Idikaa, E.C. Onuoraha, C.F. Obia,b, P.U. Umeakuanac,d, C.O. Nwosua, D.N. Onaha, S.N. Chiejinaa, “Prevalence of gastrointestinal helminth infections of dog in Enugu State, South Eastern Nigeria.” Parasite Epidemiology and Control, vol. 2, pp. 97-104, May., 2017.
 E. Beeler, M. May, “The Link between Animal Feces and Zoonotic Disease,” Rx for Prevention. LA County Department of Public Health, pp. 4-5, 2011.
 C. I. Iboh, R. O. Ajang, J. T, “Abraham. Comparison of gastrointestinal helminthes in dogs and awareness of zoonotic infection among dog owners in Calabar, South Eastern Nigeria,” Afr J Parasitol Res., vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 41-45, 2014.
 F. I. Mohammed, “The Prevalence of Helminth Eggs in the Soil of Abuja Recreational Parks and Gardens, Abuja, Nigeria,” A thesis Submitted for the Award of Master of Science Degree in Veterinary Public Health and Preventive Medicine, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria, pp. 1-78, 2011.
 I. W. Fong, “Emerging Zoonoses A worldwide Perspective,” Springer, pp. 15-38, 2017.
 S. Umur, Y. Meral, C. S Bolukbas, A. T. Gurler, M. Acici, “First clinical Strongyloides stercoralis case in a dog in Turkey,” Turk J Vet Anim Sci., vol. 41, pp. 312-215, 2017.
 Official Website of the Lagos State Government. Lagos State. 2018. View
 National Bureau of Statistics (NBS). Population Projection. Demographic Statistics Bulletin, pp. 1-26, 2018.
 S. E. Hambolu, A. A. Dzikwi, J. K. P. Kwaga, H. M. Kazeem, J. U. Umoh, D.A. Hambolu, “Dog Ecology and Population Studies in Lagos State, Nigeria,” Glob J Health Sci., vol. 6, pp. 209-220, 2014.
 E.C. Faust, J.S. D’Antoni, V. Odom, M.J. Miller, C. Peres, W. Sawitz, “A critical study of clinical laboratory techniques for the diagnosis of protozoan cysts and helminth eggs in faeces. I. Preliminary communication,” Am J Trop Med Hyg., vol. 18, no. S1, pp. 169-183, 1938.
 C. M. Hendrix, E. Robinson, “Diagnostic Veterinary Parasitology for Technicians,” Fifth Edition, Elsevier Health Sciences, pp. 1-480, 2016.
 L. S. Garcia, G. W. Procop, “Diagnostic Medical Parasitology,” Manual of Commercial Methods in Clinical Microbiology; 2016, pp. 284-308. Wiley Online Library.
 Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO). Techniques for parasites assays and Identification in Faecal Samples. The Epidemiology, Diagnosis and Control of Helminth Parasites of Ruminants. A Handbook. International Laboratory for Research on Animal Diseases Nairobi, Kenya, 1994.
 A. B. Ayinmode, O. O. Obebe, E. Olayemi, “Prevalence of potentially zoonotic gastrointestinal parasites in canine faeces in Ibadan, Nigeria,” Ghana Med J., vol. 50, no. 4, 201-206, 2016.
 T. M. Tion, J. S. Ikurior, K. D. Orbunde, “The Prevalence of Gastrointestinal Helminths (GIH) Infection of Dogs in Makurdi Metropolis,” Imp J of Interdiscip Res., vol. 2, no. 8, pp. 1042-1049, 2016.
 R. D. Robinson, D. L Thompson, J.F. Lindo, “A survey of intestinal helminths of well-cared-for dogs in Jamaica, and their potential public health significance,” J Helminthol., vol. 63, pp. 32-38, 1989.
 R. C. Satyal, S. Manandhar, S. Dhakal, B.R. Mahato, S., “Chaulagain, L. Ghimire, Y.R. Pandeya. Prevalence of Gastrointestinal Zoonotic Helminths in Dogs of Kathmandu, Nepal,” Int J Infect Microbiol., vol. 2, no. 3, pp. 91-94, 2013.
 T. L. Mateus, A. Castro, J. N. Ribeiro, M., “Vieira-Pinto. Multiple Zoonotic Parasites Identified in Dog Feaces Collected in Ponte de Lima, Portugal-A Potential Threat to Human Health,” Int J Environ Res Public Health, vol. 11, pp. 9050-9067, 2014.
 W. Rojekittikhun, K. Chaisiri, A. Mahittikorn, S. Pubampen, S. Sanguankiat, T. Kusolsuk, W. Maipanich, R. Udonsom, H. Mori, “Gastrointestinal Parasites of Dogs and Cats in a Refuge in Nakhon Nayok, Thailand,” SE Asian J Trop Med., vol. 45, no. 1, pp. 31-39, 2014.
 O. W. Nyamongo, R. M. Nyarango, “Prevalence of Canid Gastrointestinal Helminths Eggs in Soils from Playgrounds within the Kisii Municipality, Kenya,” Res Rev J Zool Sci., vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 27-31, 2015.
 M.F.M. Urgel, R.H.D. Ybañez, A. P. Ybañez, “The detection of gastrointestinal parasites in owned and shelter dogs in Cebu, Philippines,” Veterinary World, vol. 3, no. 12, pp. 372-376. March 2019.
 Y. Mulugeta, M. Yohannes, D. Wolde, M. Aklilu, B. Ashenefe, D. Getahun, F. Lombamo, G. Kitila, G. Getahun, A. Deressa, H. Degefu, “Intestinal Parasites in Dogs and Humans, Environmental Egg Contamination and Risk of Human Infection with Zoonotic Helminth Parasites from Dog in Hosanna Town,” International Journal of Biomedical Materials Research, vol. 7, no. 1, April, 2019, pp. 24-36.
 W. Kidima, “Prevalence of Zoonotic Parasites in Stray Dogs in Rural Communities, Tanzania.” Tanzania Journal of Science, vol. 45, no. 1, pp. 93-100, 2019.
 F. L. Torre, A. D. Cesare, G. Simonato, R. Cassini, D. Traversa and A. F. di Regalbono, “Prevalence of zoonotic helminths in Italian house dogs.” Infect Dev Ctries, vol. 12, no. 8, pp. 666-672, June, 2018.
 M. Beiromvand, A. Rafiei, E. Razmjou, S. Maraghi, “Multiple zoonotic helminth infections in domestic dogs in a rural area of Khuzestan Province in Iran.” BMC Veterinary Research, vol. 14, no. 224, pp. 1-7, 2018.
 S. Lahmar, I. Arfa, B.S. Othmen, W. Jguirim, Y. Saïd, A. Dhibi, B. Boufana, “Intestinal helminths of stray dogs from Tunisia with special reference to zoonotic infections.” Parasitology Open, vol. 3, no. e18, pp. 1-9, Nov., 2017.
 A. Geraili, Y. Maroufi, M. Dabirzadeh , H. Noormohammadi, S. M. Khoshsima, “Survey of gastrointestinal helminth of stray dogs in Zabol city, southeastern of Iran,” Arch of Razi Inst 2016; vol. 71, no. 1, pp. 57-60, 2016.
 A. Daukšte, M. Kirjušina, A. Dzerkale, “Prevalence of Helmints in Dogs in Daugavpils Town (Latvia),” Acta Biol. Univ. Daugavp., vol. 2, no. 10, pp. 133-135, 2010.
 G. Gugsa, T. Hailu, S. Kalayou, N. Abebe, Y. Hagos, “Prevalence and Worm Burdens of Gastro-Intestinal Parasites in Stray Dogs of Mekelle City, Tigray, Ethiopia,” Am Eurasian J Agric Environ Sci., vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 08-15, 2015.
 S. Das, M. A. Alim, S. Sikder, A. D Gupta, M. Masuduzzaman, “Prevalence and Worm Load of Enteric Helminthiasis in Stray Dogs of Chittagong Metropolitan, Bangladesh,” YYU Veteriner Fakultesi Dergisi, vol. 23, no. 3, pp. 141-145, 2012.
 I. K. Idika, E. C. Onuoraha, C. F. Obia, P. U. Umeakuanac, C. O. Nwosua, D. N. Onaha, S. N. Chiejina, “Prevalence of gastrointestinal helminth infections of dog in Enugu State, South Eastern Nigeria,” Parasite Epidemiol Control, vol. 2, 97-104, 2017.
 D. V. Ancy, D. Amala, “Identification of Man-made Disasters in Kerala Stray Dog Menace in Keral,” J Comput Biosci Eng, vol. 2, pp. 1-3, 2015.
 E. Voslárˇová, A. Passantino, “Stray Dog and Cat Laws and Enforcement in Czech Republic and in Italy,” Ann Ist Super Sanità, vol. 148, no. 1, pp. 97-104, 2012.
 P. Prociv, J. Croese, “Human eosinophilic enteritis caused by dog hookworm Ancylostoma caninum,” Lancet, vol. 8701, pp. 1299-302, 1990.
 M. Zhang, Y. Li, “Eosinophilic enteritis: a state-of-the-art review,” J Gastroenterol Hepatol., vol. 32, pp. 64-72, 2017.
 J. Croese, A. Loukas, J. Opdebeeck, P. Prociv, “Occult enteric infection by Ancylostoma caninum: a previously unrecognized zoonosis,” Gastroenterol., vol, 1, pp. 3-12, 1994.
 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, “Parasites-zoonotic Hookworm,” 1600 Clifton Road Atlanta, GA 30329-4027 USA. 2012.
 Center for Food Security and Public Health, “Zoonotic Hookworms,” CFSPH, College of Veterinary Medicine, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50011. 2013.
 K.O. Bandaranayaka, R.P.V.J. Rajapakse, R.S. Rajakaruna, “Potentially zoonotic gastrointestinal parasites of dogs in Lunugala Tea estate community in Central Sri Lanka,” Ceylon Journal of Science, vol. 48, no.1, pp. 43-50, 2019.
 C. P. Molina, J. Ogburn, P. Adegboyega, “Infection by Dipylidium caninum in an infant,” Arch Pathol Lab Med., vol. 127, pp. e157-e159, 2003.
 W. Page, J. A. Judd, R. S. Bradbury, “The Unique life cycle of Strongyloides stercoralis and Implications for public health action,” Trop. Med Infect. Dis., vol. 3, pp. 1-11, 2018.
 Lagos Dog Law, Dog Law. Dog Law of the Federal and Lagos. Federal Republic of Nigeria Official Gazette. vol. 2, 1943.
 World Organization for Animal Health, “Report on the OIE’s International Standard on Stray Dog Population Control,” Guidance on the OIE’s international standard on stray dog population control for APOs: Content, Implementation and Practical Impacts, Draft 12, pp. 1-49, 2015.
 I. Sternheim, “Stray Dogs in the Netherlands: How Holland Became Free of Stray Dogs,” Dog Search, Animal Foundation Platform. Isis Publisher, Amsterdam, Netherlands, pp. 1-9, 2012.
 M. Bouwman, “Animal Sheltering in the Netherlands,” Conference proceeding at the 6th National G2Z summit and workshops, themed: Reaching out to the community, 14th-19th September. Mantra on View Hotel, Gold Coast, pp. 1-5, 2015.
Copyright (c) 2019 Olatunji Ayodeji Abulude
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
Author(s) retains full copyright of their article and grants non-exclusive publishing right to International Annals of Science and its publisher “AIJR (India)”. Author(s) can archive pre-print, post-print and published version/PDF to any open access, institutional repository, social media or personal website provided that Published source must be acknowledged with citation and link to publisher version.
Click here for more information on Copyright policy
Click here for more information on Licensing policy