Phytochemical Status of Different Solvent Extracts of Anthocleista djalonensis A. Chev Leaves
The choice of suitable solvent is essential in the extraction of much needed bioactive phytochemicals present in medicinal plants. This study assessed the phytochemical status of four solvents (methanol, hexane, ethylacetate and aqueous) extracts of Anthocleista djalonensis, leaves of the plants were extracted with the solvents by cold maceration for three days; screening and quantitative determination of saponin, alkaloid, tannin, cardiac glycosides, flavonoids phenols and terpenoids was done using standard methods. Phytochemical screening indicates the presence of all the phytocompound in the methanol extract, while other extracts shows variation in the availability of different phytochemicals, quantitative results shows alkaloid ranged from 1.79-18.90 mg/100g, flavonoids: 2.54-10.53 mg/100g, saponin: 2.00-12.23 mg/100g, tannin: ND-4.83 mg/100g, phenol: ND-6.65 mg/100g, cardiac glycoside: ND-2.08 mg/100g, and terpenoids: ND-1.98 mg/100g; significant difference (p<0.05) exist in each phytochemicals across the solvents where methanol and the aqueous extracts gave the best extraction efficiency for the phytochemicals. Consequently, the optimum extraction of useful phytochemicals from A. djalonensis could be achieved using either methanol and water.
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