The Prevalence of Congenital Malaria
This study was aimed at highlighting on the prevalence of malaria among pregnant women in Nigeria within the last ten years. The prevalence of congenital malaria in Nigeria varies and it affects every geopolitical zone in Nigeria. This is because Nigeria like other countries in the tropics and subtropics has factors which favour the survival of mosquito. Although the World Health Organization (WHO) recommends the use of insecticide treated nets and effective case management of uncomplicated malaria as a feasible and cost-effective control strategy, Nigeria remains one of the worst affected countries in the world with malaria among pregnant women and neonates. This paper recommends more programs to the menace of this infection among pregnant women and neonates in Nigeria.
- World Health Organization. World malaria report 2015. Geneva, Switzerland: WHO, 2015. https://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/handle/10665/200018/9789241565158_eng.pdf?sequence=1
- J. White, S. Pukrittayakamee, T.T. Hien, M.A. Faiz, O.A. Mokuolu, A.M. Dondorp, “Malaria” Lancet, vol 383, no 9918, pp 723–735, Feb 2014.
- Tarning, “Treatment of Malaria in Pregnancy,” NEJM, vol 374, no 10, pp 981–982, March 2006.
- World Health Organization. World Malaria Report 2008. Geneva, Switzerland: WHO, 2008. https://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/handle/10665/43939/9789241563697_eng.pdf;jsessionid=D1AFD79A40AAA163C25561536BB6BF6F?sequence=1
- World Health Organization. Guideline for Treatment of Malaria. Geneva, Switzerland: WHO, 2015. https://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/handle/10665/162441/9789241549127_eng.pdf?sequence=1
- National Population Commission. Nigeria Malaria Indicator Survey 2010. Abuja, Nigeria: NPC, NMCP, and ICF,
- P. Kar, A. Kumar, O.P. Singh, J.M. Carlton, N. Nanda, “A review of malaria transmission dynamics in forest ecosystems,” Parasite Vectors, vol 7, pp 265, June 2014.
- O. Ukaegbu, A.U. Nnachi, J.D. Mawak, C.C. Igwe, “Incidence of Concurrent Malaria and Typhoid Fever Infections in Febrile Patients in Jos, Plateau State Nigeria,” International Journal of Scientific and Technology Research, vol 3, no 4, pp 157–161, April 2014.
- World Health Organization, World malaria report 2012: WHO World Malaria Programme. Geneva, Switzerland: WHO, 2012. https://www.who.int/malaria/publications/world_malaria_report_2012/report/en/
- P. Eisele, D.A. Larsen, P.A. Anglewicz, J. Keating, J. Yukich, A. Bennett, P. Hutchinson, R.W. Steketee, “Malaria prevention in pregnancy, birth weight, and neonatal mortality: a meta–analysis of 32 national cross–sectional datasets in Africa,” Lancet Inf Dis, vol 12 no 12, pp 942–949, Sept 2012.
- I. Olasehinde, A.A. Ajayi, S.O. Taiwo, B. Adekeye, O.A. Adeyeba, “Prevalence and management of falciparium malaria among infants and children in Ota, Ogun State, Southwestern Nigeria,” Afr. J. Clin. Exper. Microbiol, vol 11, no 3, pp 159–163, Sept 2010.
- Erhabor, T.C. Adias, M.L. Hart, “Effect of falciparum malaria on the indices of anaemia among pregnant women in the Niger Delta of Nigeria,” J Clin Med Res, vol 2, no 3, pp 035–041, Mar 2010.
- J. Bruce–Chwatt, Essential Malariology. London: William Heinemann Medical Books, 1986.
- O. Mbah, O.O. Njoku, A.U. Nnachi, I.A. Nnachi, A.J. Nwinyimagu, “Incidence of antenatal malaria parasitaemia and the effects on the haemoglobin profile of the pregnant women in Enugu East. Local Government Area, Enugu, Nigeria,” American Journal of Epidemiology and Infectious Disease, vol 3, no. 5, pp 88–94, 2015.
- A. Adefioye, O.A. Adeyeba, W.O. Hassan, O.A. Oyeniran, “Prevalence of malaria parasite infection among pregnant women in Osogbo, South‑West, Nigeria,” Eur J Sci Res, vol 2, no 1, pp 43–45, 2007.
- F. Enato, A.O. Okhamafe, E.E. Okpere, E. Pogoson, H.D. Schallig, “Prevalence of malaria during pregnancy and antimalarial intervention in an urban secondary health care facility in Southern Nigeria,” Med Princ Pract. 2007; vol 16, no 3, pp 240–243.
- B. Kagu, M.B. Kawuwa, G.B. Gadzama, “Anaemia in Pregnancy: A crosssectional study of pregnant women in a Sahelian tertiary hospital in Northeastern,” Nigeria. J Obstet Gynaecol, vol 27, no 7, pp 676–679, Oct 2007.
- J. Uneke, “Congenital Plasmodium falciprium malaria in Sub-Saharan Africa. A rarity or frequent occurrence?” Parasitol Res, vol 101, no 4, pp 835–842, Sept 2007.
- J. Uneke, “Assessment of malaria in pregnancy using rapid diagnostic tests and its association with HIV infection and haematologic parameters in South–Eastern Nigeria,” Haematologia, vol 93, pp 143–44, Jan 2008.
- O. Agomo, W.A. Oyibo, “Factors associated with risk of malaria infection among pregnant women in Lagos Nigeria,” Infect Dis Poverty, vol 2, pp 19, Aug 2013.
- I. Nwagha, V.O. Ugwu, T.U. Nwagha, B.U. Anyaehie, “Asymptomatic Plasmodium parasitaemia in pregnant Nigerian women: almost a decade after Roll Back Malaria,” Trans Roy Soc Trop Med Hyg, vol 103, no 1, pp 16–20, Jan 2009.
- J. Uneke, F.E. Iyare, I. Sunday–Adeoye, O. Asiegu, K. Nwosu, J. Ajayi, “Effects of maternal Plasmodium falciparum malaria, Anaemia and HIV infection on fetal hemoglobin levels in Nigeria,” Internet J Gynecol Obstetr, vol 12, no 1, pp 1–7, 2008.
- Agan, J. Ekabua, A. Udoh, E. Ekanem, E. Efiok, M. Mgbekem, “Prevalence of anemia in women with asymptomatic malaria parasitemia at first antenatal care visit at the University of Calabar Teaching Hospital, Calabar, Nigeria,” Int J Women’s Health, vol 2, pp 229–233, Aug 2010.
- G. Raimi, C.P. Kanu, “The prevalence of malaria infection in pregnant women living in a suburb of Lagos, Nigeria,” AJBR, vol 4, no 10, pp 243–245, Nov 2010.
- T.A. Jombo, E.M. Mbaawuaga, A.S. Ayegba, M.N.O. Enenebeaku, E.E. Okwori, E.J. Peters, “How far we rolled back malaria on the African continent nine years down? The burden of malaria among pregnant women in a semi–urban community of northern Nigeria,” J Med Med Sci, vol 1, no 6, pp 235–241, April 2010.
- T.A. Jombo, E.M. Mbaawuaga, A.S. Ayegba, M.A. Araoye, “Anaemia, malaria burden and its control methods among pregnant women in a semi–urban community of northern Nigeria,” JPHE, vol 3, no 7, pp 317–323, July 2011.
- N. Ohalete, I.N.S. Dozie, M.I. Nwachukwu, “Epidemiology and socio–economic consequences of malaria in pregnant women in Imo State, Nigeria,” AJMR, vol 5, no 23, 3895–900, Sept 2011.
- H. Oladeinde, R. Omoregie, I. Odia, O.B. Oladeinde, “Prevalence of malaria and anemia among pregnant women attending a traditional birth home in Benin City, Nigeria,” Oman Med J, vol 27, pp 232–236, April 2012.
- A. Bawa, T. Auta, S. Liadi, “Prevalence of malaria, knowledge, attitude and cultural practices of pregnant women in Kastina Metropols, Nigeria,” Eur J Sci Res, vol 10, no 21, pp 148–159, July 2014.
- M. Okafor, A.P. Akpan, O.M. Nwofor, “Prevalence of Malaria Parasitaemia Among Women of Different Blood Groups In Calabar, Cross River State, Nigeria. Mary Slessor J Med. 2013; 12, no 1.
- N. Wogu, F.O. Nduka, M.D. Wogu, “Prevalence of malaria parasite infection among pregnant women attending antenatal clinics in Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria,” Int J Trop Dis Health, vol 3, no 2, pp 126–132, April 2013.
- Odikamnoro, A. Iganga, L.N. Ozowara, N. Okoh, “Prevalence of malaria among pregnant mothers and possible relationship to parity in Abakaliki, Southeast Nigeria,” European Journal of Experimental Biology, vol 4, no 4, pp 15–19, 2014.
- A. Alaku, A.G. Abdullahi, H.A. Kana, Epidemiology of Malaria Parasites Infection among Pregnant Women in Some Part of Nasarawa State, Nigeria. Developing Country Studies, vol 5, no. 2, 2015.
- E. Amala, C.P. Nwibani, “Malaria in pregnancy and its association with ABO blood group and heamoglobin genotype,” International Journal of Development Research, vol 5, no 8, pp 5317–5520, Aug 2015.
- A. Fana, M.D.A. Bunza, S.A. Anka, A.U. Imam, S.U. Nataala, “Prevalence and risk factors associated with malaria infection among pregnant women in a semi–urban community of north–western Nigeria,” Infectious Diseases of Poverty, 2015; 4: 24–29.
- K.L. Gunn, J.E. Ehiri, E.T. Jacobs, K.C. Ernst, S. Pettygrove, L.N. Kohler, S.D. Haenchen, M.C. Obiefune, C.O. Ezeanolue, A.G. Ogidi, E.E. Ezeanolue, “Population–based prevalence of malaria among pregnant women in Enugu State, Nigeria: The Healthy Beginning Initiative,” Malaria Journal, vol 14 pp 438, Nov 2015.
- Dawaki, H.M. Al‑Mekhlafi, I. Ithoi, J. Ibrahim, W.M. Atroosh, A.M. Abdulsalam, A. Ahmed, “Is Nigeria winning the battle against malaria?: Prevalence, risk factors and KAP assessment among Hausa communities in Kano State.” Malaria Journal, vol 15, pp 351, July 2016.
- O. Sule–Odu, J.O. Sotunsa, T.O. Adeiyi, A.A. Akadri, “Malaria in pregnancy in Nigeria: Analysis of characteristics of women attending antenatal care in a tertiary facility. Nigerian Medical Practitioner, vol 69, no 6, 89–92, 2016.
- N. Ukibe N.R. Ukibe, J.I. Mbanugo, L.C. Ikeakor, “Prevalence of malaria among pregnant women attending antenatal clinics in hospitals in Anambra State, South–East, Nigeria,” Nigerian Journal of Parasitology, vol 37, no 2, pp 240–244, 2016.
- E. Amala, G.N. Wokem, “Prevalence of Malaria in Pregnant Women Attending Antenatal Clinic in a Rural and an Urban Hospital in Port Harcourt, Nigeria. Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research, vol 24, no 12, pp 1–9, Jan 2018.
- Ibeneme, M. Ojone, I.N. Nwode, “Prevalence and effect of malaria in pregnancy among antenatal women in Ebonyi State, Nigeria,” International Research Journal of Public and Environmental Health, vol 4, no 8, pp 177–183, June 2017.
- A. Inah, R. Ejemot–Nwadiaro, J.A. Inah, J.E. Eko, “Prevalence of Malaria among Pregnant Women and Children Under Five Years in Abi Local Government Area, Cross River State, Nigeria,” AJMAH, vol 7, no 1, pp 1–7, 2017.
- A. Salako, F.O. Ajayi, A. Sowunmi, O. Walker, “Malaria in Nigeria: a revisit,” Ann Trop Med Parasitol, vol 84, pp 435–445, 1990.
- Centre for Disease Control and Prevention. Malaria, Dec 2017. https://www.cdc.gov/dpdx/malaria/modules/malaria_LifeCycle.gif
- A. Ekpenyong, J.E. Eyo, “Plasmodium infection in man: a review,” ARI, vol 3, no 3, pp 573–580, 2006.
- S. Philip, “Current status of malaria and potential for control,” Clin. Microbiol. Rev, vol 4, no 1, pp 208–226.
- Aikawa M. Host cell invasion by malarial parasites. In: Cook, C. B, Pappas, P. W. and Rudolph, E. D. (Eds.). Cellular Interactions in Symbiosis and Parasitism. Columbus, USA: Ohio State University Press, 1980.
- R. Arora, B. Arora,. Textbook of Medical Parasitology (4th ed). New Delhi, India: CBS Publisher, 2014.
- L. Hoffman, Malaria vaccine development: a multi–immune response approach. Washington, D.C: American Society of Medicine Press, 1996.
- W. Service, “Ecological considerations in the biocontrol strategies against mosquitoes,” In: Laird M. (Ed.). Biological control strategies of medical and veterinary pests. New York, USA: Praeger, 1981.
- World Health Organization, Assessment of therapeutic efficacy of antimalarial drugs for uncomplicated falciparum malaria in area with intense transmission, 1996.
- Carter, K.N. Mendis, “Evolutionary and historical aspects of the burden of malaria,” Clin. Microbiol. Rev, vol 15, no 4, pp 564–594, Oct 2002.
- J. Bruce–Chwatt, C. Garret–Jones, B. Weitz, “Ten year study (1955– 64) of host selection by Anopheline mosquitoes,” Bulletin of the World Health Organization, vol 35, no 3, pp 405–439, 1996.
- Coluzzi “The clay feet of the malaria giant and its African roots: hypotheses and inferences about origin spread and control of Plasmodium falciparum.” Parasitologia, 41, pp 277–283, Sept 1999.
- C. Oaks, V.S. Mitchell, G.W. Pearson, C.C.J. Carpenter, Malaria: obstacles and opportunities. Washington D.C, USA: National Academy Press, 1991.
- Gupta, R.W. Snow, C.A. Donnelly, K. Marsh, C. Newbold, “Immunity to non–cerebral severe malaria is acquired after one or two infections,” Nature Medicine, vol 5, no 3, pp 340–343, Mar 1999.
- F. Trape, C. Rogier, “Combating malaria morbidity and mortality by reducing transmission,” Parasitology Today, vol 12, no 6, pp 236–240, June 1996.
- K. Baird, “Host age as a determinant of naturally acquired immunity to Plasmodium falciparum,” Parasitology Today. 1995; vol 11, no 3, pp105–111, Mar 1995.
- World Health Organization, Malaria, March 2009. http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs094/en
- Cheesborough, “Medical and Laboratory Manual for Tropical Countries 1, pp 1-462.” Edinburgh, Scotland: Cheesbrough Butterworths, May 2005.
- R. Bharti, K.P. Patra, R. Chuquiyauri, M. Kosek, R.H. Gilman, A. Llanos-Cuentas, J.M. Vinetz, “Polymerase chain reaction detection of Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum DNA from stored serum samples: implications for retrospective diagnosis of malaria,” Am J Trop Med Hyg, vol 77, pp 444–446, Sept 2007.
- Medical Research Council, “Evaluation of pyriproxyfen (Sumilarv 0.5% Granule) on larvae of mosquito vectors at Nadiad (Gujarat), Haldwani (uttranchal) and Shahjahanpur (uttar Pradesh). In: Malaria Research Centre Annual Report 2004–2005, pp. 1–64, Feb 2006.
- Federal Ministry of Health, “Strategic plan 2009–2013: A road map for malaria control in Nigeria”, Abuja, Nigeria: FMOH, pp 1–39, June 2008.
- G. Mazumdar, S. Mazumdar, “Prevention and treatment of malaria in Nigeria: differential and determinants from a spatial view.” Presented at the 5th Annual Conference of Union of African Population Studies organized by UAPS and IUSSP, Arusha, Tanzania, Dec 2007.
- Meremikwu, C. Egbuna, E. Philip–Ephraim, A.A.A. Alaribe, J. Odok, “Therapeutic efficacy test of Chloroquine and Sulfadoxime–Pyrimethamine for uncomplicated malaria in preschool children in Akpabuyo, Cross River State Nigeria. A report submitted to the Federal Ministry of Health. Abuja: FMOH, 2002.
- A. Asindi, E.E. Ekanem, E.O. Ibia, M.A. Nwangwa, “Upsurge of malaria–related convulsions in a paediatric emergency room in Nigeria: Consequence of emergence of chloroquine–resistant Plasmodium falciparum,” Tropical and Geographical Medicine, vol. 45, no. 3, pp 110–113, Jan 1993.
- Federal Ministry of Health, “National antimalarial treatment policy.” Abuja, Nigeria: FMOH, Feb 2005.
Copyright (c) 2019 Etefia Uwem Etefia
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
Author(s) retains full copyright of their article and grants non-exclusive publishing right to International Annals of Science and its publisher “AIJR (India)”. Author(s) can archive pre-print, post-print and published version/PDF to any open access, institutional repository, social media or personal website provided that Published source must be acknowledged with citation and link to publisher version.
Click here for more information on Copyright policy
Click here for more information on Licensing policy