Advanced Journal of Social Science <p align="justify"><a title="Click for Journal homepage" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><img style="float: right; padding-left: 15px; padding-right: 5px;" src="" alt="AJSS" /></a>Advanced Journal of Social Science (AJSS) [ISSN: 2581-3358] is online-only, open access, refereed journal in the field of sociology published by AIJR Publisher. This Social Science journal will publish free articles for the manuscript submitted in the year of 2018. <strong>Research articles suitable for this sociology journal includes the field of humanities, education, economics, political science, human geography, demography, psychology, sociology, history, and management, etc. </strong></p> en-US <div id="copyrightNotice"> <p>Author(s) retains full copyright of their article and grants non-exclusive publishing right to&nbsp;<strong>Advanced Journal of Social Science</strong>&nbsp;and its publisher “<a title="AIJR Publisher homepage" href="" target="_blank">AIJR</a>&nbsp;Publisher”. Author(s) can archive pre-print, post-print and published version/PDF to any open access, institutional repository, social media or personal website provided that Published source must be acknowledged with citation and link to publisher version.<br>Click&nbsp;<a title="Copyright Policy" href="" target="_blank">here</a>&nbsp;for more information on Copyright policy<br>Click&nbsp;<a title="Licensing Policy" href="/index.php/jmm/about#licensing" target="_blank">here</a>&nbsp;for more information on Licensing policy</p> </div> (Adv. Journal of Social Science) (Amir Abdullah) Sat, 02 Jan 2021 11:53:19 +0000 OJS 60 Revisiting Energy Consumption-economic Growth Hypothesis: Do Slope Heterogeneity and Cross-sectional Dependence Matter? <p>In this paper, the long-term nexus between energy consumption and economic growth is investigated using a panel data of 80 countries from World Bank data base for the period 1970 to 2017. In order to check for the issues of endogeneity, slope heterogeneity, and cross-sectional dependence present in errors of panel data, the study applied cross-sectional augmented autoregressive distributed lag (CS-ARDL) and cross-sectional augmented distributed lag (CS-DL) models to examine the long-term impact of energy consumption on economic growth. The empirical results revealed that energy consumption has a positive and significant long-run effect on economic growth and that cross-sectional dependence, slope endogeneity and heterogeneity are issues that should be on the watch when dealing with panel data of developing and developed countries’ analysis. Furthermore, the outcomes indicated that the impact of energy consumption on economic growth is stronger in less developed countries than in advanced economies. Technological progressions that give rise to the advancement of clean and efficient energy and substitution of low-quality fuels with high quality fuels are some of the possible channels that weaken the link between energy consumption and economic growth in advanced economies. Importantly, from a policy perspective, based on the study findings, energy conservation policies aimed at promoting environmental quality may worsen economic growth in developing countries, thereby adversely affecting their long-run economic growths.</p> Miriam Kamah, Joshua Sunday Riti Copyright (c) 2021 Miriam Kamah, Joshua Sunday Riti Tue, 19 Jan 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Conjugal Visits in Prisons Discourse: Is it Even an Offender Rehabilitation Option in Africa? <p>Conjugal rights issue in prisons is indeed an old debate. This article reviewed the literature on the genesis of prisoners’ conjugal visits programme, its global prevalence and the scholarly debate for and against its provision to understand if it can be a rehabilitation option in African countries’ prisons. It has been noted that conjugal visits were haphazardly started in the 1900s in Mississippi before becoming official programmes in 1989. Though they were discontinued later in 2014 in Mississippi, conjugal visits are still provided in many penitentiary facilities in America, Europe, Asia and Africa. Studies have revealed that conjugal visits are capable of reducing the problems of homosexuality, sexual assaults and physical violence in prisons. It has also been observed that, apart from the fact that denial of conjugal rights to the prisoners’ spouse could be a form of punishment to innocent victims, conjugal visits can be incentives for good prisoners’ behaviour and rehabilitation in prisons. However, apart from the fact the programme is likely to be expensive and costly to African countries whom their general strife is prisoners’ overcrowding, most of the arguments against conjugal visits are moral-based such as that the programme is likely to perpetrate one-parent family system and is prone to abuse by both prisoners and prison staff. It has, therefore, been concluded that it cannot hurt anybody if legally married prisoners and their spouses are provided with a right to enjoy conjugal visits especially in those jurisdictions which have embraced rehabilitation philosophy. </p> Samson C R Kajawo Copyright (c) 2021 Samson C R Kajawo Mon, 22 Mar 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Pharmaceutical Company In-house Research and Licensing Transaction Review <p><strong>Background:</strong><strong>​</strong> Pharmaceutical in-house research and licensing deals are effective means of widespread production of drugs to the public. These transactions follow a normalized procedure requiring upfront payments between a buying company to work either collaboratively with a small to medium sized selling company or buying the right of a product completely. Licensing a novel pharmaceutical drug goes through several clinical phases, and transaction deals can involve royalty and/or milestone payments along the research and clinical trial process.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong><strong>​</strong><strong>:</strong> Data was collected through analysis of pharmaceutical licensing market deals via online databases and extracted to a data sheet for examination. Trends were highlighted after analyzing upfront payment values, royalty sales, milestone payments and total transaction deal value.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong><strong>​</strong><strong>:</strong> Total milestone payments averaged at USD $639.1 million, and total royalty payments averaged at USD $899.77 million. Average total deal values is USD $1445.18 million. Correlation coefficients between: (1) upfront and milestone payments r = 0.155; (2) upfront payments and royalty payments r = 0.188; and (3) upfront payments and total deal value r = 0.604. Most transactions are a small/medium enterprise selling to big pharmaceutical companies (32%) or a big pharmaceutical company selling to a small/medium enterprise (32%). 27% of deals are between big pharmaceutical companies, and 9% of deals are between small/medium enterprises.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong><strong>​</strong> There is a positive correlation between upfront payment costs with milestone/royalty costs and total deal value (n=25). Small or medium enterprises are beginning to take a large sector of the transaction business as their in-house research licensing grows more appealing for market distribution.</p> Thomas Drago, Katelynn Cahill, Alannah Grealy, Kieran Lucey, Muhammad Mahmoud Copyright (c) 2021 Thomas Drago, Katelynn Cahill, Alannah Grealy, Kieran Lucey, Muhammad Mahmoud Sat, 03 Apr 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Investigating the Determinants of App-based Land Transportation User Loyalty in Jakarta Using PLS-SEM Framework <p>This study aims to investigate user loyalty factors using application-based land transportation in Jakarta. The methodology in this study uses a quantitative approach and a questionnaire is used as an instrument to collect data. With an unknown population, this study used 301 samples of application-based land transportation users. The statistical method used to analyze the hypotheses in this study is Partial Least Square - Structural Equation Modeling (PLS-SEM) with WARP-PLS. Based on the results of statistical tests, it was found that 6 hypotheses were accepted, and 5 hypotheses were rejected. The result of this study explains that ease of using the application affects the loyalty in using application-based transportation. Meanwhile, loyalty is not influenced by application display, service responsiveness in applications, service adjustment, service guarantee and user attitudes. This research further explains that the ease of using the application, application display, service adjustment, and service guarantee affect the user's attitude. On the other hand, service responsiveness does not affect attitude towards using. As novelty, the use of the loyalty framework in this study uses the use attitude as a mediator of main factors in service quality for application-based transportation in urban areas. As a managerial implication, it is interesting that the results of this study explain that loyalty in the use of application-based transportation is not automatically formed from a positive attitude towards using. The adjustment of services provided on the application because of competition in the application-based transportation industry must be able to meet user expectations which tend to change according to the offers provided by service providers.</p> Michael Christian, Farida Jasfar, Hamdy Hady Copyright (c) 2021 Michael Christian, Farida Jasfar, Hamdy Hady Tue, 09 Feb 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Improving Mental Health Outcomes for Black and Minority Ethnic Communities: A Quantitative Study into Perception of Control <p><strong>Background:</strong> Although the disparities in mental health outcomes for ethnic minorities in the United Kingdom are well-documented, little is known about the role perception of control plays in the experiences of service users and its role in perpetuating or improving health inequalities. This quantitative methods study investigated the perspectives of the members of these communities from the Locus of Control domain.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> A small-scale survey (N=50), applied a purposive sampling method to recruit mental health service users of African and Caribbean origin from a South London Borough to complete two structured questionnaires. Data were analysed using SPSS in the examination of the scores, various demographic variables, linear relationships, and other reliability tests.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Key findings indicate a moderate to high externality in LOC scores for participants, in general, and mental health milieus, with some remarkable differences in ethnicity, gender, and age. </p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The results present some implications and opportunities for mental health services, policy, and professionals in engaging with clients from this target group towards addressing the inequality of outcomes.</p> Stephen Joseph, Frank Keating Copyright (c) 2021 Stephen Joseph, Frank Keating Mon, 22 Mar 2021 00:00:00 +0000 The Cultivation of Sweet Pepper (Capsicum Annuum) in Foumbot Agricultural Area, West Region, Cameroon <p>This study aimed to get information on the cultivation of sweet pepper from the North West Region of Cameroon (Foumbot). Data for the study were obtained from 92 farmers with the aid of well-structured questionnaires. Results obtained showed that among the sweet pepper farmers, males represented 80% of the sampled population and women 12%, all of them aged between 18 to 48 years old. Their level of education varies from primary school to University with the majority found between primary school (48%) and secondary school (30%). 41% of the sampled cultivators have the greatest level of experience in between 10 to 30 years and 52% with the lowest level of experience varying from 1 to 10 years. The sweetest pepper varieties cultivated was Yolo wonder and Simba. 89 % of respondents had a sweet pepper field with a surface area between 0.5 and 1 hectare. According to farmers, the nursery is usually attacked by fungi after one week of growth, which always cause stems rot. Fungicides (Mancostar 80WP) and insecticides (Mocap EC, Timik, Plantineb 80WP, Jumper and Ascot) are the most chemical products used to treat stems rot. Cypermethrin and Mancozeb represent respectively 63% and 85% of active ingredients used by the sampled growers to fight against sweet pepper diseases. 46 % of the sampled farmers said that they prefer spray pesticides in all stages while 44% of sweet pepper farmers did not take note of the number of times, they applied chemicals pesticides on their crops. NPK: 20.10.10 is the most chemical fertilizer used to grow sweet pepper.</p> Onguene Dieudonne, Julienne Nguefack, Joseph Blaise Dongmo Lekagne, Charles Dakole Daboy, Rene Azah Udom, Ghislaine Ndonkeu Mangoumou Copyright (c) 2021 Onguene Dieudonne, Julienne Nguefack, Joseph Blaise Dongmo Lekagne, Charles Dakole Daboy, Rene Azah Udom, Ghislaine Ndonkeu Mangoumou Mon, 22 Mar 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Factors Affecting Unemployment Duration of the Science and Arts Stream University Graduates in Sri Lanka <p>Sri Lanka has a significant youth unemployment problem. In the recent years, a more serious problem is graduate unemployment. Therefore, Sri Lanka needs to develop appropriate policies to decrease the duration of unemployment. In this regard, research is required to determine the factors that affect unemployment duration of graduates in order to provide the policy makers with solid foundations for their decision-making processes. Globally several studies have investigated unemployment duration of graduates. Up to date, no study has been done in Sri Lanka that thoroughly investigates the unemployment duration of graduates in Sri Lanka. Thus, the main aim of this research is to identify the factors that affect the duration of unemployment in the Science and Arts stream graduates in Sri Lanka. A survival analysis was conducted to determine how the considered factors affect the duration of unemployment among the Science stream graduates. Due to the nature of the information gathered in relation to the unemployment duration of the Arts stream graduates, an ordinal logistic regression was applied to identify the significant variables of unemployment duration of the Arts stream graduates among the variables considered. The findings of this study show that the Semi Parametric Cox Proportional model is appropriate to determine the relationship between graduates' time taken to obtain the first job and explanatory variables. According to the analysis, the gender, the type of the degree, the job category (private or government sector jobs) and the results of the GCE Advanced Level General English subject have a significant impact on unemployment duration of Science stream graduates. For the Arts stream graduates, the family income, the professional courses followed by graduates during their academic years at the university and the participation in extra-curricular activities while in the university were found to be significant.</p> Lakma Gunarathne, Chathuri L Jayasinghe Copyright (c) 2021 Lakma Gunarathne, Chathuri L Jayasinghe Sat, 03 Apr 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Sociodemographic Factors and Adoption of Social Media as a Management Tool by Managers and Administrators in Selected Non-Governmental Organizations in Kigali, Rwanda <p>Social media use has gained prominence in the public as well as in the work environment as a way of quickly and widely sharing information and its crucial role in management has been elevated even more by the covid-19 pandemic which has severely limited human physical interaction. This study was carried out to explore the sociodemographic factors and adoption of social media as a management tool among managers and administrators in selected Non-Governmental Organizations in Kigali Rwanda. The study focused on the popular social media applications that can be of use in management namely, Facebook, Twitter, WhatsApp, video-conferencing applications, and YouTube. The study employed a descriptive cross-sectional design with an online survey questionnaire administered to a sample size of 217 respondents purposively sampled from six selected NGOs in Kigali Rwanda. Findings indicated that the overall social media adoption was quite high with WhatsApp being the most popular app. Several respondents’ characteristics such as age, education and job level showed statistically significant association with adoption of particular social media applications. Findings, however, revealed no structured approach to social media use in most of the surveyed NGOs. The study concluded that the overall adoption rate of social media was quite high but with a huge disparity in usage rates of specific social media applications and that certain sociodemographic factors such as education level and training appeared as strong predictors of social media adoption. This study recommended therefore, that NGOs should determine the applications that support their business model and provide comprehensive policies and support to encourage the employees to adopt the chosen social media applications in their managerial functions. The policy makers should also promote the modifiable sociodemographic factors that influence social media adoption such as education level and training.</p> Onesmus Marete, Alice Kituyi, Joyce Kirabo Copyright (c) 2021 Onesmus Marete, Alice Kituyi, Joyce Kirabo Sat, 03 Apr 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Self-control and Mental Health? Exploring Perceptions of Control from the Experiences of Black and Minority Communities <p>Although the disparities in mental health outcomes for ethnic minorities are well-documented; very little is known regarding service user perspectives and experiences from locus of control ambit. The aim of this qualitative study was to investigate the experiences of African and Caribbean service users, from the context of their Locus of Control (LOC). Informed by an Interpretivist approach, this study was conducted via in-depth interviews (N=10) and two focus groups (N=14). Purposive sampling methods were used to recruit mental health service users from a South London Borough to participate in the study. Data was collected through a semi-structured interview schedule and a focus group guide. Data analysis was informed by an Interpretive Phenomenology Analysis approach in the examination of the LOC profiles and service user perspectives. The study found that the drivers of LOC for the respondents were: perceived racism; perceived loss of control due to challenges pertaining to accessing employment, work stressors, lack of career advancement, socio-economic challenges; discrimination at work, identity challenges and entry to and exit pathways from mental health services, all of which promotes LOC externality. The findings suggest that mental health services need to take an active interest in factors that constitute externality in the LOC in assessment of the needs of A &amp; C groups in clinical and community interventions. A holistic approach to psycho-social and socio-cultural issues are highly needed to improve the mental health outcomes for members of African and Caribbean communities with experience of mental health challenges.</p> Stephen Joseph, Frank Keating Copyright (c) 2021 Stephen Joseph, Frank Keating Sat, 03 Apr 2021 00:00:00 +0000 A Critical Insight into Needs Assessment Technique and the Way Social Needs are Actually Assessed <p>Needs assessment is regarded as a powerful tool for addressing the needs for a program, and for various other purposes including strategic planning for resource allocation, priority setting, and improving the course of an ongoing program. As such, it is portrayed as an ideal and necessary step in policymaking. On the other hand, however, there are some growing concerns about the actual needs assessment practice which is believed by many to be prejudicing the performance of countless policies and programs. Hence, looking into this dichotomy of views and the way social needs are actually assessed are of particular interest. The present contribution seeks to delve deep into the technique of needs assessment and to give an insight on what ought to be done in the field and what is being done in fact. A systematic literature search was conducted to identify and analyze all available research studies that address the function of needs assessment, the problem definition in need assessment, the identification and classification of needs, the definition, description, and specification of target populations, and the description of the nature of service needs. The content of the relevant sections in each study was then read and reread with the aim of determining how social needs are assessed indeed. The result has shown that needs, their identification, and the way they are met, are in most cases determined by experts and agencies, not the needy populations. The search has also revealed the existence of significant gaps between the needs identified by professionals and those seen as important by the people who they are supposed to benefit. Finally, the result suggests that experts and agencies’ definition and identification of needs or target populations only reflect their own views or choices of program activity and the reasons they brandish in seeking for funding.</p> Hamidou Issaka Diori Copyright (c) 2021 Hamidou Issaka Diori Sat, 02 Jan 2021 00:00:00 +0000 A Value Centred Paradigm to Moderate the Digital Transformation of Manufacturing <p class="Abstract"><span lang="EN-GB">Digital transformation affects almost all areas of society and business and is of increasing interest to academics and industry practitioners. New digital technology is expected to enable manufacturing companies to capture competitive and productivity advantages compared to conventional methods. Aggregated information based on production process data represent a new production factor to generate innovative forms of digital value generation. Paradoxically, the implementation of digitalised production in manufacturing companies remains at unexpected low levels as companies’ investment decisions often vote against digitalisation due to uncertainty in judging novel forms of criteria related to digital value. Digital transformation constates a new set of latent structure and relationships to generate, capture and monetise value. A holistic view on heterogenous research disciplines related with digital transformation of production is proposed in this short communication. This research presents a new paradigm which takes the moderation function of value propositions, value architectures and value capture to evaluate projects relative to digitalised manufacturing.</span></p> Luzian Dold Copyright (c) 2021 Lucian Dold Sat, 03 Apr 2021 00:00:00 +0000