Advanced Journal of Social Science https://journals.aijr.in/index.php/ajss <p align="justify"><a title="Click for Journal homepage" href="https://doi.org/10.21467/ajss" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><img style="float: right; padding-left: 15px; padding-right: 5px;" src="/public/site/images/aabahishti/AJSS_Cover_Page.jpg" alt="AJSS"></a>Advanced Journal of Social Science (AJSS) [ISSN: 2581-3358] is an online-only, open access, refereed journal in the field&nbsp;of sociology published by&nbsp;AIJR Publisher. This &nbsp;Social Science journal will publish free articles for the manuscript submitted in the year of 2018.&nbsp;<strong>Research articles suitable for this sociology journal includes the field of humanities, education, economics, political science, human geography, demography, psychology, sociology, history, and management, etc.&nbsp;</strong></p> AIJR Publisher en-US Advanced Journal of Social Science 2581-3358 <div id="copyrightNotice"> <p>Author(s) retains full copyright of their article and grants non-exclusive publishing right to&nbsp;<strong>Advanced Journal of Social Science</strong>&nbsp;and its publisher “<a title="AIJR Publisher homepage" href="https://www.aijr.in/" target="_blank">AIJR</a>&nbsp;Publisher”. Author(s) can archive pre-print, post-print and published version/PDF to any open access, institutional repository, social media or personal website provided that Published source must be acknowledged with citation and link to publisher version.<br>Click&nbsp;<a title="Copyright Policy" href="https://www.aijr.in/about/policies/copyright/" target="_blank">here</a>&nbsp;for more information on Copyright policy<br>Click&nbsp;<a title="Licensing Policy" href="/index.php/jmm/about#licensing" target="_blank">here</a>&nbsp;for more information on Licensing policy</p> </div> A Predictive Model for the US Non-profit Market; A Macro to a Micro Perspective https://journals.aijr.in/index.php/ajss/article/view/865 <p>The Non-Profit Sector contributes almost $1 trillion to the US economy, representing 5.4% of GDP, and generating over 12 million jobs in 2017. Researchers suggest that a better understanding of the factors that affect fundraising would be of great interest to policymakers and fundraisers. However, the workings of the sector are subject of much debate. Some relate its size to the Theory of Government Failure, while others propose that government funding does have a positive effect on revenues. Some have suggested they swing with Gross Domestic Product (GDP), but others contradict this view and contend that macroeconomic variables do not affect short-run dynamics. Some research found that non-profit revenues react more to economic upswings than downturns, but nationwide organizations relate the ups-and-downs to certain events, as they influence public awareness. Predictive modeling overall has focused on big-donor analytics, aimed at identifying potential sponsors. Our research set out instead to define a working model for the US Non-Profit Sector. After an exhausting search, we located complete time series for an emblematic segment, the environmental cause, Factor Analysis allowed us to pinpoint the independent variables. We found that Non-Profit Revenues (NPR) depend largely on Public Awareness, as measured by TV coverage, and on Disposable Personal Income (DPI), specifically:</p> <p>NPR = -4401.542 + 528.327(DPI) +23.121(TVCoverage) + Ɛ</p> <p>We replicated prior research,&nbsp;which sought out relationships between macro-economic variables and NPR. That study had discarded the correlation between GDP and NPR as obvious, but did not explore DPI as the determining factor, and stuck to single variable searches, finding a correlation between the Standard &amp; Poors index and lagged NPR figures, with a correlation coefficient of 0.636. Our model’s Pearson's R came up to&nbsp;0.935, with perfect significance levels. Confirmatory Factor Analysis reaffirmed the fit of our equation, with an R² of 0.87.</p> Francisco J Quevedo Andrea Katherine Quevedo-Prince ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2019-01-31 2019-01-31 5 1 1 9 10.21467/ajss.5.1.1-9 Youths’ Online Political Participation in Ethiopia; A Study of Students’ Facebook Usage in Some Selected Public Universities https://journals.aijr.in/index.php/ajss/article/view/989 <p>This study was conducted to examine youths’ online political participation in Ethiopia with a focus on students’ Facebook usage in six randomly selected universities. The research specifically aimed to study the extent of participation, the main online political activities, and factors that determine such involvements. For this purpose, the research utilized a quantitative method with survey design. The sample size was 400 and the samples were selected by using the simple random method. Descriptive statistics were used for analysis. Accordingly, the research found limited youth’s involvement in those activities that require more commitments and efforts while they found to be active in activities that require low efforts and commitments. Low political efficacy and fear of political measures were found to be the main factors that force youths to have limited involvement in activities that require more efforts and commitments.</p> Ketemaw Muluye ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2019-02-02 2019-02-02 5 1 10 17 10.21467/ajss.5.1.10-17 A Macroeconomic Analysis of Agricultural Sector in Nigeria https://journals.aijr.in/index.php/ajss/article/view/1091 <p>This paper attempts to study the Nigerian agriculture industry as a panacea to growth as well as an anchor to the diversification agenda of the present government. To do this, the time series data of the four agriculture subsectors of crop production, livestock, forestry and fishery were analysed as stimulus to the Real GDP from 1981-2016 in order to explicate the individual contributions of the subsectors to the RGDP in order to guide the policy thrust on diversification. Using the Johansen approach to cointegration, all the variables were found to be cointegrated. With the exception of the forestry subsector, all the three subsectors were seen to have impacted on the real GDP at varying degrees during the time under review. The crop production subsector has the highest impact, however, taking size-by-size analysis, the livestock subsector could be of much importance due to its ability to retain its value chain and high investment returns particularly in poultry. Therefore, it is recommended that, the government should intensify efforts to retain the value chain in the crop production subsector, in order to harness its potentials optimally through the encouragement of the establishment of agriculture cottage industries. Secondly, the livestock subsector is found to be the most rapidly growing and commercialized subsector. Therefore, it should be the prime subsector to hinge the diversification agenda naturally. Lastly, the tourism industry which is a source through which the impact of the subsector is channeled to the GDP should be developed, in order to improve the impact of such channel to GDP with the sole objective to resuscitate the forestry subsector.</p> Isah Funtua Abubakar Umar Bambale Ibrahim ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2019-02-02 2019-02-02 5 1 18 25 10.21467/ajss.5.1.18-25 Classroom Management Strategies and Student Learning https://journals.aijr.in/index.php/ajss/article/view/1324 <p>Great teachers build great institutions. The teachers who have been playing a central role in human learning and effective teaching are believed to be the shapers of society. Usually, the effectiveness of an instructor is measured on the basis of the performance of his pupil. There exist many factors which affect the performance of the class. Classroom management is one of the important factors which matters a lot in the process of student learning. Classroom management can be considered as an art which varies from teacher to teacher i.e. every teacher has a unique style of managing his class but still there exist some general classroom practices. In this article, the emphasis is given on some of the general classroom management practices, following which can enhance the effectiveness of student learning.</p> Mukul Kumar Ziqian Liu ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2019-05-29 2019-05-29 5 1 65 72 An Overview on the Public Relations Strategic Management in Public Sector Organizations https://journals.aijr.in/index.php/ajss/article/view/1364 <p>Public relations are an important aspect that must be considered by public sector organizations to achieve its objectives. Strategic management is a valuable tool to aid public sector organizations in developing its public communication programs regarding the public relations. This paper attempts to explore the basic concepts that is important regarding the issue through literature review of several previous studies on public relations strategic management in public sector organizations. From these literature, this paper concludes that in order to achieve its public relations objectives, public sector organizations will have to: identify the groups that make up the public, understand the positioning of the organizations as well as the public groups; choose the best public relations strategy; and formulate the tailored messages to be communicated to each public groups according to the strategy chosen by the organization.</p> Darmawan Sidiq Rudy M Harahap ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2019-06-01 2019-06-01 5 1 73 80 Exploring Language; Some Specificities, Complexities and Limitations in Human Communication and Social Interaction in Multi-cultural Contexts https://journals.aijr.in/index.php/ajss/article/view/752 <p>This paper explores the subject matter of human language as a social phenomenon in a multi-cultural and multi-ethnic society like Nigeria. The paper situates language as a complex social phenomenon which pervades every aspect of human life. It identifies the role of language in intrapersonal and interpersonal communication, and the complexities involved in every communicative event that must not be taken for granted. Furthermore, it identifies the functions and limitations of language, including its negative functions as viewed from Critical theory. The paper affirms that language is a central phenomenon in human cognitive development, internal conceptualization of thoughts and ideas, the external expression and sharing of thoughts, the perception and representation of social reality, the transmission of culture, and the maintenance of social relations. The paper further notes that language difference can be a source of social dysfunction in multi-lingual and multi-cultural societies like Nigeria.</p> Kelechi Chijioke Samuel ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2019-02-02 2019-02-02 5 1 26 36 10.21467/ajss.5.1.26-36 Moroccan Facebook Visual Narratives and Cultural Production https://journals.aijr.in/index.php/ajss/article/view/1134 <p>In this paper, I argue that the creation and circulation of the visual narratives within Facebook groups by Moroccan Facebookers largely entail and substantiate a stronger process of cultural production that has its own logic and praxis. I argue that this process of cultural production has two major facets: an aestheticization of everyday life and promulgation of specific modes of consciousness. Through the aestheticization of everyday life, I posit that Moroccan youth’s acts of cultural production increasingly blur the formal boundaries between the Internet, art, and popular culture; an aspect which fundamentally empowers their creative online input. Through the promulgation of specific modes of consciousness, I argue that the visual narratives attempt to develop and enhance the cultural sensibilities which better champion their perceptions and stances. Taken together, I claim that these major manifestations of the process of cultural production, while being deeply wedded to the Gramscian and Foucauldian perception of power dynamics, set the tone for an underlying struggle over power and meaning-making in the Moroccan society, thus seeking to intervene and exploit the gaps and contradictions in these power dynamics in society.</p> Driss Faddouli ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2019-03-20 2019-03-20 5 1 45 51 10.21467/ajss.5.1.45-51 Anti-corruption Strategies for Balanced Development https://journals.aijr.in/index.php/ajss/article/view/1100 <p>This paper synthesizes the assessment of anti-corruption strategies adopted by previous administrations in Nigeria and the effectiveness of the Economic and Financial Crimes Commission (EFCC). Factors militating against the effectiveness of EFCC were identified, and solutions proffered. Corruption in education was also noted. The administration of some heads of state before the establishment of EFCC was discovered to fuel corruption, while some administrations proved to have adopted Gandhian approach to fighting corruption; they recorded success but were not sustained because their efforts were found to have been frustrated by their succeeding administrations. The results of the frustrations lead to the establishment of EFCC which is an institution to tackle corruption during democracy. Finally, it was revealed that the achievement of EFCC’s mandates is low. Towards anti-corruption strategies and the effectiveness of EFCC, recommendations were suggested. It is believed that if the recommendations were fully implemented, balanced development is inevitable.</p> Adetayo Olaniyi Adeniran ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2019-04-22 2019-04-22 5 1 52 64 The Socioeconomic Impacts of Boko Haram Activities on the Host Community of Yankari Game Reserve, Bauchi State, Nigeria https://journals.aijr.in/index.php/ajss/article/view/1022 <p>The study examined the socioeconomic impacts of Boko Haram activities on the host community of Yankari Game Reserve, Bauchi State, Nigeria. Data for this study were gathered from primary and secondary sources. The data sought was on the level of socioeconomic activities before and after the emergence of Boko Haram, among others. However, in order to achieve the aim, 142, 40 and 327 of staff, tourists and host community members were respectively identified and successfully administered questionnaire copies. The responses obtained from the questionnaire were further analyzed using both descriptive and inferential statistical tools. For the community, farming and rearing (86.4%) is the most important occupation in the community followed by trading, civil servant and others. In terms of buying and selling in the community, 90.3% of the respondents stressed that patronage level was very high before the emergence of Boko Haram but crumbled after the emergence of Boko Haram as alleged by 97.1% of the respondents. 65% of the respondents were of the opinion that since the emergence of Boko Haram, many of their youths have been relieved of their duties (jobs) in the game reserve and other places as a result of low patronage in the area while, 35% of the respondents believed that employment level in the community is still high even with the emergence of Boko Haram. The hypothesis was tested using bivariate regression analysis. F = 26.525, p&lt;0.05 indicated that Boko Haram activities have significant influence on the local livelihood of adjoining community. It is recommended that the government should step up with their poverty alleviation programs especially in the northeastern part (Alkaleri L.G.A to be précised) of the nation because poverty and unemployment level are still relatively high in the area which can result to security uproar.</p> Chinomso Ukah Sunday Peter Ejaro ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2019-02-11 2019-02-11 5 1 37 44 10.21467/ajss.5.1.37-44 Dynamics of Seasonal Migration of Rural Livelihood https://journals.aijr.in/index.php/ajss/article/view/1160 <p>Globally, farming communities migrates considering it as a livelihood strategy, especially given unprecedented environmental change. Because migration facilitates poverty reduction, education improvement, entrepreneurial investments and even the economic evolution of the origin areas. Farmers in the northern region of Bangladesh migrate during the slack season when farming activities are not up to the mark. Driven by this context, this study examined the principal actors, the pattern of seasonal migration in the context of seasonal variability and migration's role in food security and livelihood resilience in the Barind Tract, Bangladesh. The participatory rural appraisal was employed for collecting basic facts and information. The study suggests that poverty is the root cause of migration, such that men from poor households with small landholdings and high food insecurity migrate for work during the winter. Moreover, the traditional practice of sharecropping, which helped them reduce food shortages, has also become less profitable these days. Therefore, the tendency of migrating is likely to escalating among the people of this region, and those already relocated are planning to settle down there for a more extended period. Currently, such migrants are getting engaged in low-paying unskilled wage work, construction work mainly in Rajshahi city, Mohadevpur, and Dhaka the capital city of Bangladesh, which enables them to make not only modest savings but also hard enough to repay the debt their family has incurred during food shortages.</p> Muhaiminul Islam Sumaia Kashem Shameem Morshed Md. Mostafizur Rahman Anutosh Das ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2019-06-03 2019-06-03 5 1 81 92 The Impacts of Continuance Commitment to Job Performance https://journals.aijr.in/index.php/ajss/article/view/1201 <p>Continuance commitment of employee and job performance are inevitably linked to each other, and it is well known that employee continuance commitment is affected by intrinsic motivation of individuals. This study aimed to assess the impacts of continuance commitment to job performance in developing economies like Tanzania. People in developing economies have low commitment due to internal factor such as a desire for earning high size of payment. I focused on the determination of continuance commitment impacts on job performance from a sample of 116 public and private sector employees of industrial and government corporations. In multiple linear regression analysis on the impacts of continuance commitment and job performance two predictors; social capital and human capital show the significant relationship between two variables while the size of payment shows a very little contribution to job performance.</p> Optatus K Kasogela ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2019-06-03 2019-06-03 5 1 93 100 Commodities' Preferences and Determinants of Demand Among University Students in Nigeria https://journals.aijr.in/index.php/ajss/article/view/1297 <p>The study investigates preferences for commodities and determinants of demand among the students of Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria. Out of 140 respondents, 91% reveals that they prefer food items to all other items, 87% preferred academic books and other literature, 78% indicates a preference for credit cards, internet data plans, and other mobile subscriptions. Sixty-six percent (66%) disclosed their preference for hairstyles, 64% preferred clothing and foot wares, 63% preferred to save, 61% preferred mobile devices and technologies and 53% preferred medical care services. However, majority of the respondents reveals less preference for jewellery and cosmetics (69%) as well as parties and entertainments (82%). In addition, the study reveals that there are a number of factors that determine a student's demand for commodities. The study found students’ income as a very important determinant, while prices, taste, time and savings were rated as important determinants of demand among university students in Nigeria.</p> Olusola Joseph Dahunsi ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2019-06-03 2019-06-03 5 1 101 107 Implication of Socio-economic Factors on Land Use and Forest Cover Changes in and Around Magamba Nature Reserve in Tanzania https://journals.aijr.in/index.php/ajss/article/view/1397 <p>Rural settlements in mountainous regions are a typical process that&nbsp;occurs&nbsp;in many places around the world and have a number of implications on the landscape.&nbsp;Among them is a threat it possesses to the conservation and management of Afromontane ecosystems.&nbsp;This study assessed the socio-economic factors that&nbsp;drive&nbsp;the changes in&nbsp;land&nbsp;use&nbsp;and&nbsp;forest&nbsp;cover&nbsp;and the extent of&nbsp;land&nbsp;use&nbsp;and vegetation&nbsp;cover&nbsp;in and around&nbsp;Magamba&nbsp;Nature Reserve.&nbsp;Focus group discussion, direct field observation and household survey were used to&nbsp;acquire&nbsp;socio-economic information that impacts&nbsp;land&nbsp;use&nbsp;and&nbsp;forest&nbsp;cover. Through the&nbsp;use&nbsp;of Remote Sensing and GIS methods Landsat satellite images of 1995, 2008 and 2015 were employed to&nbsp;identify&nbsp;the extent of the changes in&nbsp;land&nbsp;use&nbsp;and&nbsp;forest&nbsp;cover.&nbsp;The perceived factors for the changes include education level, unemployment, landless/limited, landholding, population pressure, expansion of built-up&nbsp;areas&nbsp;and agricultural&nbsp;land&nbsp;at the expense of other&nbsp;land&nbsp;covers.&nbsp;This study&nbsp;revealed&nbsp;the transformation of&nbsp;natural&nbsp;forest and associated vegetation from one form to another.&nbsp;There was&nbsp;a decrease in&nbsp;natural&nbsp;vegetation from 61.06% in 1995 to 26.02% in 2015 and increase in built-up&nbsp;areas&nbsp;by 6.69% and agricultural&nbsp;areas&nbsp;by 4.70%.&nbsp;This study recommends conservation monitoring and strong law enforcement relating to&nbsp;natural&nbsp;resources&nbsp;so as to promote sustainable use of&nbsp;resources&nbsp;to rescue the diminishing ecosystem services.</p> Solomon Jeremiah Sembosi ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2019-06-03 2019-06-03 5 1 108 117