Anti-corruption Strategies for Balanced Development

A Case Study of Economic and Financial Crimes Commission (EFCC)

  • Adetayo Olaniyi Adeniran Department of Transport Management Technology, Federal University of Technology, Akure


This paper synthesizes the assessment of anti-corruption strategies adopted by previous administrations in Nigeria and the effectiveness of the Economic and Financial Crimes Commission (EFCC). Factors militating against the effectiveness of EFCC were identified, and solutions proffered. Corruption in education was also noted. The administration of some heads of state before the establishment of EFCC was discovered to fuel corruption, while some administrations proved to have adopted Gandhian approach to fighting corruption; they recorded success but were not sustained because their efforts were found to have been frustrated by their succeeding administrations. The results of the frustrations lead to the establishment of EFCC which is an institution to tackle corruption during democracy. Finally, it was revealed that the achievement of EFCC’s mandates is low. Towards anti-corruption strategies and the effectiveness of EFCC, recommendations were suggested. It is believed that if the recommendations were fully implemented, balanced development is inevitable.

Keywords: Corruption, Anti-corruption, Development, Nigeria


Download data is not yet available.


Adeniran, A. O. (2016a). The Rational Approach of Obafemi Awolowo’s Principles in Enhancing Efficient Leadership and Good Governance through Intellectual Enormity. International Policy Review, 2(9):31-37.

Adeniran, A. O. (2016b). The Choice of Unsound Policy Making in African Nations. Public Policy and Administration Research, 6(11): 72- 75.

Adeniran, A. O. (2016c). Facilitating Efficient Counterterrorism Approaches through Transportation and Logistics in Nigeria. Industrial Engineering Letters, 6(9): 6-12.

Adeniran, A. O. (2018). Assessment of Federal Governments’ Effort on Looted Assets Recovery in Nigeria as a Means of Fighting Corruption and Terrorism. Discovery, 54(276), 453-462.

Adeniran, A. O., Adekunle, E. A., and Adeleke, I. A. (2017). The Pertinency of Fuel Subsidy in Nigeria’s Economic Recession. International Journal of European Studies. 1(3): 60-71.

Adeniran, A. O. and Owoeye, A. S. (2018). Logistical Perspective towards Counterterrorism of Boko Haram Insurgency in Nigeria: Lessons and Way-Out. Journal of Industrial Engineering and Safety, 1(1), 1-11. DOI: 10.0000/JIES.1000102.

Akpakpan, B. E. (1987). Crossroads in Nigerian Development. Port Harcourt: New Generation Publishers.

African Development Magazine (2016). Corrupt Leaders Stole Billions from Nigeria. Retrieved from

Anttiroiko, A. V. and Valkama, P. (2005). Good Governance: in Hietanen, O. (Ed.), University Partnerships for International Development. Finnish Development Knowledge. FFRC-Publications 6/2005. Finland Futures Research Centre, Turku, Pp. 268-281.

Ari-Veikko, A. (2014). Good Governance in Context: Learning from Anti-corruption Policies of Finland and Singapore. Munich Personal RePEc Archive (MPRA). Available online at MPRA Paper No. 67807, posted 10. November 2015 17:26 UTC, Accessed on 25th May 2018.

Ashok, R. B. (2012). Corruption in Administration with Special Reference to India.  Pp. 1-25

Austine, E., and Charles, M. (2013). Corruption in Nigeria: A Historical Perspective. Research Humanities and Social Sciences Journal, 3(16), 19

Babatunde, L. (2017). Legal Practitioners’ Role in Effective Implementation of Anti-Corruption Laws. Retrieved from

Celia, A., and Ernesto, B. (2006). Use of Research Results in Policy Decision-Making, Formulation, and Implementation: A Review of the Literature. Cad. Saúde Pública, Rio de Janeiro, 22 Sup: S7-S33, 2006.

Day, K. (2011). Global Political Economy and Its Neocolonial Vices: Postcolonial Theological Reflections on Economic Justice. Post Colonial Networks, Plural space.

Dudley, B. J. (1973). Instability and Political Order: Politics and Crisis in Nigeria. Ibadan University Press, Pp. 21

Ezenwaji, N. (2000). Traditional Administrative System in Nigeria, A study of Selected Nigerian Societies. Enugu, Institute for Development Studies.

Falola, T. (1998). Corruption in the Nigerian Public Service 1945-1960. Lewiston, the Edwin Mellen Press.

Folarin, S. (2012). Corruption, Politics and Governance in Nigeria. Unpublished comment at the Covenant University, Political Science and International Relations Department

Foster-Carter, A. (1979). Marxism Versus Dependency Theory? A Polemic Millenium. Journal of International Studies, 8(3), 214-234.

Furtado, C. (1971). Development and Underdevelopment. University of California Press, 1971.

Gashinbaki, I. B. (2017). Anti-corruption: An evaluation of strategies, and systems in Nigeria.

Gupta, S., Hamid, D., and Erwin, T. (2000). Corruption and the Provision of Health Care and Education Services. Working Paper 00/116, International Monetary Fund, Washington, DC.

Ibidolapo, B. (2016). Nigeria: The Anti Corruption Legal Framework And Its Effect On Nigeria's Development. Article by  S.P.A. Ajibade & Co.

International Association of Anti-Corruption Authorities (2012). Economic and Financial Crimes Commission (EFCC).

International Centre for Asset Recovery (2009).  Retrieved from

Iroja, P. (2016). EFCC Lack of Diligent Prosecution Sustains Corruption in Nigeria. Retrieved from

Nwabueze, B. O. (2005). Constitutional Democracy in Africa, Vol. 4.

Nwaodu, N. (2012). Corruption: Development Crises and Political Instability in Nigeria. Owerri, Mega Atlas Ltd.

Nwaodu, N., Adam, D., and Okereke, O. (2016). A Review of Anti-Corruption Wars in Nigeria. Africa’s Public Service Delivery and Performance, Pp. 153-174.

Nwobashi, H. N. and Anthony, I. (2017). Democratic Governance and the Fight Against Corruption in Nigeria: A Critical Appraisal of Economic and Financial Crime Commission (EFCC) Anti-corruption Strategies under Buhari’s administration. Middle-East Journal of Scientific Research, 25(4): 741-753. DOI: 10.5829/idosi.mejsr.2017.741.753.

Odey, E. A., and Ashipu, B. (2013). Ethical Transformation and Value eorientation in Nigeria: A Religious Perspective Academic Discourse. An International Journal, 3, 56-65.

Ogbeidi, M. (2012). Political Leadership and Corruption in Nigeria Since 1960: A Socio-economic Analysis. Journal of Nigeria Studies, 1(2).

Okonkwo, R. (2016). Corruption in Nigeria: A Historical Perspective (1947-2002). Retrieved from

Olaleye, O., Akosile, A., et al. (2011). Transparency International Ranks Nigeria 35th Most Corrupt Nation. This Day Paper, Pp. 8-9.

Olapujo, K. (2016). Why EFCC Fail to Prosecute Corrupt Individuals. Retrieved from

Olu, A. O. (2012). The Challenges of Democratic Governance in Nigeria. International Journal of Business and Social Sciences, Adekunle Ajasin University, Akungba Akoko, Ondo State, Nigeria.

Richard, A. O., and Ene, O. I. (2015). Analyses of Legal Frameworks for Fighting Corruption in Nigeria: Problems and Challenges. Kuwait Chapter of Arabian Journal of Business and Management Review, 5(3), 1-33.

Salisu, M. (2006). Corruption in Nigeria. Lancaster University Management School Working Paper. Retrieved from

Section 308 Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria 1999 Cap C23 LFN 2004

Tapales, P. (2001). An Evaluation of Anti-corruption Programs in the Philippines. World Bank, Operations Evaluation Department. Washington, DC.

Ughorojeh, M. U. (2008). Religion and the Challenges of Democracy, Governance in Nigeria. NASRED, 35.

United Nation Development Programme (UNDP) (2007). Governance for Sustainable Human Development. A UNDP Policy Paper.

Wilson, G. (2005). Economic and Social Infrastructure: Provision, Distribution, and Maintenance in Chukuemeka, A., and Nyekachi, A. (eds) Applied Economics in Perspectives. Port Harcourt: ROD Printing and Publishing Company, Chapter 5 (Pp. 93-128).

Wolf, T. and Emine, G. (2000). Improving Governance and Fighting Corruption in the Baltic and CIS Countries: The Role of the International Monetary Fund. Retrieved from

World Bank (1997). Helping Countries Combat Corruption: The Role of the World Bank. Retrieved from

How to Cite
Adeniran, A. (2019). Anti-corruption Strategies for Balanced Development. Advanced Journal of Social Science, 5(1), 52-64.