Advanced Journal of Graduate Research <p align="justify"><a title="Click for Journal homepage" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><img style="float: right; padding-left: 15px; padding-right: 5px;" src="/public/site/images/aabahishti/AJGR_Cover_Page.jpg" alt="AJGR"></a>Advanced Journal of Graduate Research is a multidisciplinary, international journal featuring the work of graduate students and young researchers. This journal seeks to disseminate the work of emerging students who focus on scientific/technical content, regardless of their academic discipline.&nbsp;<em>Adv. J. Grad. Res.</em> publishes research carried out by graduate students and young researchers (Bachelor degree students and Master degree students) that sound&nbsp;scientifically and technically valid. This journal will serve as a global platform to broadcast new research initiatives being carried out by today’s brightest youths as part of their graduate project.<br>Advanced Journal of Graduate Research is published by AIJR publisher (India) and registered with CrossRef with doi: 10.21467/ajgr&nbsp;and ISSN of this journal is &nbsp;2456-7108 [online].</p> en-US <div id="copyrightNotice">Author(s) retains full copyright of their article and grants non-exclusive publishing right to&nbsp;this journal and its publisher “<a title="AIJR Publisher homepage" href="" target="_blank">AIJR</a>&nbsp;(India)”. 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Research) (Technical Support) Wed, 04 Apr 2018 13:55:52 +0000 OJS 60 Modeling and Optimization of Friction Stir Welding Parameters for Joining Dissimilar Aluminum Alloys <p>The objectives of this work are to optimize the process parameters on the mechanical properties (ultimate tensile strength (UTS) and ductility) of dissimilar joints between AA5454 and AA7075 produced by friction stir welding and to determine which of them is significant by using Taguchi L16 optimization method. Seven parameters at two levels were selected in this study. The selected parameters are tool rotational speed, traverse speed, pin profile (based on taper angle), D/d ratio, tool tilt angle, plunge depth, and base metal location. Then, mathematical models are built as function of significant parameters/ interactions using Response Surface Methodology. The results of this work showed that the rotational speed, traverse speed, D/d ratio and plunge depth are significant parameters in determining UTS (Mean, Signal to noise ratio (S/N)) at different confidence levels, but pin profile, location of base metal and tool tilt angle are insignificant parameters at any confidence levels. The traverse speed has the highest contribution to the process for UTS about 18.577 % and 16.943 % for S/N ratio and mean, respectively. The accuracy of the models according to the UTS is 97.678 % and 99.56 %for mean and S/N ratio, respectively. The maximum joint efficiency, compared to the strength of the AA5454, is 85.3%.</p> Mohamed Mohamed Abd Elnabi, Tarek Abd Elsadek Osman, Alaa Eldeen El Mokadem, Abou Bakr Elshalakany  ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 04 Apr 2018 13:08:41 +0000 An Experimental Configuration to Probe for Lorentz Symmetry Violation in Electrons Using Trapped Yb+ Ions <p>Since extensions of the standard model have been developed that predict violations of local Lorentz invariance (LLI), precision measurement groups have been working to reduce experimental bounds of the associated matrix element. Using an analogue of the Michelson-Morley test with trapped Ca+ ions, the current bound has been set at one part in 1018. However, by instead using Yb+ ions, which have highly stable electronic states for storing quantum information compared to their counterparts and exhibit enhanced effects of LLI breaking asymmetries, we can push the bounds to one part in 1023. In this article, we outline a configuration for such an experiment and offer solutions to experimental concerns. We develop an algorithm for state creation, manipulation, and measurement that minimizes measurement time and transition uncertainty.&nbsp; We also discuss necessary hardware for trapping and manipulating ions including a vacuum system, a Paul trap and the associated electrode voltage supplies, and an optics system for generating and applying transition pulses. The experiment is specifically designed to utilize the existing ion trap hardware in place at the Richerme lab at Indiana University Bloomington.</p> Noah Kurt Schlossberger, Phil Richerme ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 04 Apr 2018 13:16:45 +0000 Study of Changes in Physical Parameters of compost and vermicompost of Eucalyptus leaf litters <p>Vermicompost and compost of leaf litter of Eucalyptus was studied in plastic bins in duplicate sets with two different proportions (100 % and 50 %). For vermicompost experiments, epigeic earthworm species <em>Eisenia foetida</em> and <em>Eudrilus eugeniae</em> were employed at 10-10 numbers each per vermicompost bins. Cattle dung was taken as control. During the entire process physical factors viz. temperature, pH, moisture content and biomass were measured and compaired. The results were reveal that initial temperature was 35°C ± 2°C in both vermicompost and compost leaf litter and after several weeks, it was set at minimum level. In 50 % leaf litter temperature was 2-3°C higher than 100 % leaf litter. pH of both vermicompost and compost mixtures were acidic in beginning phase while set at alkaline at final stage. Vermicompost had lower pH than compost. Moisture content of leaf litter also decreased in initial phase due to generation of metabolic heat but at later phase it was increased due to decreasing of metabolic heat. More changed was seen in 100 % leaf litter followed by 50 % and then cattle dung. Biomass of leaf litter was more decreased in 100 % waste then 50 % and cattle dung.</p> Ritu Nagar, Anurag Titov, Praveesh Bhati ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 04 Apr 2018 13:20:35 +0000 Evaluating the Nasal Cytology in Acute Rhinosinusitis <p>Rhinitis has been found to have profound direct and indirect negative effects on business including costs attributed to loss of productivity and the amount of over the counter medications consumed. Several other studies have examined the immune system’s response in immunocompromised patients by using nasal cytology. This study focused on nasal cytology for a common illness such as acute rhinosinusitis (ARS), in otherwise healthy individuals. Most studies have used nasal cytology to analyze immunocompromised patients, however, this study considers otherwise healthy patients in order to better understand the basic immune response. This study aimed to examine the relationship between neutrophil frequencies found over the course of ARS and symptom severity experienced by subjects. Nasal smears were obtained from subjects at days five, nine, and fourteen of their ARS symptoms. A published symptom survey for ARS was given to participants to provide a qualifying score, a high enough level of infection, for this study. This survey monitored both emotional and physical symptoms throughout the fourteen-day illness period. Nasal smears were obtained on each visit and stained to observe the different cells present. Wilcoxon Sum Rank Tests were found to be significant between all symptom score visits 1,2, and 3 (p&lt;0.05). The average neutrophil counts between all the visits were not significant (p&gt;0.05). Less than ten percent of eosinophils were present in 88.89 percent of subjects. 55.5 percent of subjects did follow an increased amount of neutrophils over the course of their illness. This study reinforces the use of nasal cytology by obtaining nasal smears to demonstrate how neutrophil frequencies change with symptom severity.</p> Juliana R Moskowitz, Jacqueline K Shaia, James R Schwebach ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 04 Apr 2018 13:34:23 +0000 Mechanical Properties and Microstructure of Dissimilar Friction Stir Welding of Pure Aluminum to Low Carbon Steel <p>The purpose of this research is to use friction stir welding (FSW) to join dissimilar&nbsp; metals, annealed low carbon steel and A1050 pure aluminum. A butt joint with a similar sheet thickness of 1.9 mm was applied. The novelties of the research are relatively using high generated heat produced by a combination of low traverse speed and high rotational speed to perform the dissimilar joints and using a tool material (K107cold work tool steel) which has not been used in FSW with tool cooling. The present work studied the effect of FSW variables such as tilt angle, tool cooling, base metal location on mechanical properties. Tensile tests were used to evaluate the mechanical properties of the dissimilar joints. The microstructure specimens were examined using a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Sound dissimilar joints were successfully produced. The maximum joint efficiency obtained in this study is 51.7% of the aluminum tensile strength. The microstructure images showed that many steel fragments were sheared off from the steel surface by the tool action and scattered in the weld nugget, a continuous intermetallic compound (IMC) layer formed at the interface, the thickness of the IMC layer at the interface decreased in the thickness direction of the weld. FeAl<sub>3</sub> IMC phase was only observed at the interface.</p> Mohamed Mohamed Abd Elnabi, Tarek Abd Elsadek Osman, Alaa Eldeen El Mokadem, Abou Bakr Elshalakany  ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 04 Apr 2018 13:43:38 +0000