Advanced Journal of Graduate Research <p align="justify"><a title="Click for Journal homepage" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><img style="float: right; padding-left: 15px; padding-right: 5px;" src="/public/site/images/aabahishti/AJGR_Cover_Page.jpg" alt="AJGR"></a>Advanced Journal of Graduate Research is a multidisciplinary, international journal featuring the work of graduate students and young researchers. This journal seeks to disseminate the work of emerging students who focus on scientific/technical content, regardless of their academic discipline.&nbsp;<em>Adv. J. Grad. Res.</em> publishes research carried out by graduate students and young researchers (Bachelor degree students and Master degree students) that sound&nbsp;scientifically and technically valid. This journal will serve as a global platform to broadcast new research initiatives being carried out by today’s brightest youths as part of their graduate project.<br>Advanced Journal of Graduate Research is published by AIJR publisher (India) and registered with CrossRef with doi: 10.21467/ajgr&nbsp;and ISSN of this journal is &nbsp;2456-7108 [online].</p> AIJR Publisher en-US Advanced Journal of Graduate Research 2456-7108 <div id="copyrightNotice">Author(s) retains full copyright of their article and grants non-exclusive publishing right to&nbsp;this journal and its publisher “<a title="AIJR Publisher homepage" href="" target="_blank">AIJR</a>&nbsp;(India)”. Author(s) can archive pre-print, post-print and published version/PDF to any open access, institutional repository, social media or personal website provided that Published source must be acknowledged with citation and link to publisher version.<br>Click&nbsp;<a title="Copyright Policy" href="" target="_blank">here</a>&nbsp;for more information on Copyright policy<br>Click&nbsp;<a title="Licensing Policy" href="/index.php/ajgr/about#licensing" target="_blank">here</a>&nbsp;for more information on Licensing policy</div> Proximate, Phytochemical and Antioxidant Mineral Compositions of Four Different Brands of Tea <p>The comparative studies of the proximate, phytochemical and antioxidant mineral compositions of four different brands of green tea were investigated. The four different brands, Tianshi<sup>®</sup>, Qualitea<sup>®</sup>, Slimfit<sup>®</sup>, and Xiang<sup>®</sup> were purchased from a supermarket in Ihiala Local Government Area of Anambra State, Nigeria. The samples were pulverized and stored in an airtight container prior to analysis. The proximate composition was analysed using AOAC method while phytochemical compositions of the green teas were investigated using standard methods. The result of the study indicated that the moisture content (15.80±0.01%) and protein content (1.05±0.00%) of Qualitea<sup>®</sup> was significantly higher (P&lt;0.05) compared to Slimfit and Xiang tea while the fibre content of Xiang tea (80.35±0.03%) was significantly higher (P&lt;0.05) than other tea studied. The phytochemical study showed the presence of flavonoids, tannins, alkaloids, saponins and cardiac glycosides in all the teas studied. However, Qualitea<sup>® </sup>contains the highest amount of phytochemicals when compared to the other brands of tea investigated. Data obtained from the antioxidant mineral study showed that the four brands of the tea are good sources of antioxidant minerals such as Fe, Zn, Cu, Mn and Se. It is therefore recommended that tea be included in our menu because of their nutritive and health benefits.</p> Jonathan C Ifemeje Maryjane O Ifemeje Chukwuebuka Egbuna Michael C Olisah ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-02-01 2020-02-01 8 1 1 7 10.21467/ajgr.8.1.1-7 Utility of Biodiesel in Diesel Engine <p>The energy resources from the fossil fuels are decreasing day by day. Rather fossil fuel is costly, it creates environmental problems by producing&nbsp;and NO<sub>x </sub>in the environment. Now it is argent to find a solution. The solution can be renewable energy. In this paper the effort was to find the utility of biodiesels in the conventional diesel engine. This biofuel or biodiesel is extracted from Soybean methyl ester (SME). We compared the basic performance characteristics diesel, SME 20 and SME 100 in unmodified diesel engine. This experiment will be helpful to find out the utility of SME type biodiesel in conventional diesel engine so that the uses of fossil fuels can be reduced in quick rental power plants and other uses. We can use biodiesel as substitute in an economic tariff and efficient way.</p> Md. Zahidul Islam Nusrat Jahan Onny Suman Chowdhury ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-03-06 2020-03-06 8 1 8 17 10.21467/ajgr.8.1.8-17 Mineral and Phytochemical Composition of Cleome Gynandra Methanolic Extract <p>The study was done to evaluate the mineral and phytochemical composition of the methanolic extract of <em>Cleome gynandra</em> (spider plant). The plant is used as a traditional vegetable in some communities in sub-Saharan Africa and Asia. The plant has also been reported to have some medicinal effect due to presence of phytochemicals but its pharmacological and phytochemical profile has not been fully established. Collection and authentication of the plant was done followed by extraction using methanol as a solvent. The phytochemical investigation was done using both chemical analysis and chromatography method by use of a Gas chromatography mass spectroscopy (GCMS) system as per standard protocol. <em>Cleome gynandra</em> was found to contain some mineral compounds of nutritional importance and phytochemicals with potential medicinal importance. The phytochemicals analyzed include saponins, flavonoids, tannins, alkaloids, cardiac glycosides, terpanoids and polyphenols. These different phytochemicals can be further studied and their potential medicinal importance analyzed. The study concluded that <em>Cleome gynandra</em> contains phytochemicals with potentially important medicinal value. The plant (<em>Cleome gynandra</em>) can also be used as an important nutritional source of some essential nutrients like Vitamin C and beta carotene. It can also be a good source of some mineral elements like iron, selenium, cobalt, copper, zinc and manganese. This can be important for families in rural areas and for the low-income households in both rural and urban areas as a source of nutrients.</p> Charles Wanjala Wakhisi Gicheru Muita Michael Eric Mwangi ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-04-11 2020-04-11 8 1 18 26 10.21467/ajgr.8.1.18-26 Power Performance Analysis of PV Module with DC to DC Buck Converter <p>The power performance of the PV module with dc-dc buck converter for photovoltaic energy application has been analyzed in this paper. Since the solar module produces DC voltage at various levels depending on irradiance variation, it is needed to connect a DC-DC converter to adjust the level of DC voltage at a certain level. The power output has been investigated by MATLAB simulation. To improve the output power Proportional Integral Derivative (PID) control is used. From the simulation, it has been observed that around 13.85 Watts more output power can be extracted if PID control is used.</p> Niaj Murshed Md. Salman Khan Tushar Suman Chowdhury ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-04-12 2020-04-12 8 1 27 39 10.21467/ajgr.8.1.27-39 Assessment of Different Seedling Production Techniques of Euterpe edulis <p><em>Euterpe edulis</em> is an endangered species with high importance ecologically and economically. Seedling production seems to be one of the most important alternatives to population recovery. Besides that, the knowledge of seedling production methods' influence over germination is very restricted. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the effects of parent populations, germination conditions, and the substrate to commercial seedling production of <em>E. edulis</em>. Nine thousand seven hundred and thirteen seeds were distributed between the heated water and control, greenhouse and open-field treatments. The parent population presented high differences between most of the germination indexes. Influencing the germination rate, mean germination time and germination speed, but not affecting synchrony and uncertainty indexes. Heated water treatment did not affect any of the studied indexes, presenting a close pattern of germination over time, indicating it is an appropriate method for seedling production. Greenhouse and open-field treatment presented variations at the same indexes affected in the parent population analysis. The most profitable method for <em>E. edulis</em> seed germination was the greenhouse production method, which provided the best indexes results.</p> Leonardo de Lima Pereira Regnier Maria Luiza Faria Salatino ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-04-13 2020-04-13 8 1 40 50 10.21467/ajgr.8.1.40-50 Impact of Gender Differences and Glycated Haemoglobin on Atherosclerosis Risk in Type 2 Diabetic Patients from North Western Algeria <p class="Abstract"><span lang="EN-GB">In type 2 diabetic patients, blood lipids and lipid ratios have been proven&nbsp;to be&nbsp;associated with atherosclerosis risk; however, results about the effect of gender differences had not been fully conclusive.&nbsp;&nbsp;In this&nbsp;transversal comparative study, a total of 129 adult type 2 diabetic patients (54 men and 75 women), from north western Algeria, was included to highlight the impact of gender differences on atherosclerosis risk (assessed by lipid ratios) according to their diabetic profile. Comparing between the two genders, no significant differences (<em>p</em>&gt;0.05) were noted&nbsp;on diabetes duration, central obesity, body mass index and blood pressures. Moreover, the basic biochemical parameters of both glycaemic and lipid metabolism were not meaningfully divergent. However, higher significant values (<em>p</em>&lt;0.05) of body weight, height, HbA1c levels, HDL and lipid ratios (TC/HDL, LDL/HDL and TG/HDL)&nbsp;were observed&nbsp;in male patients comparing to females. According to the HbA1c levels (HbA1c&lt;7%<em>vs. </em>HbA1c≥ 7%); notable higher CT/HDL, LDL/HDL and TG/HDL in male patients comparing to women were found. The rates of these three lipid ratios were often higher in both classes of HbA1c. The consideration of&nbsp;gender differences is very important for prevention, diagnosis, treatment and management of atherosclerosis and&nbsp;CVD. The disparity in&nbsp;atherogenic&nbsp;risk, in both genders, estimated by lipid ratios need&nbsp;to be critically examined. Further, interventional studies are needed&nbsp;to determine how sex can modulate the impacts of diabetes control parameters on atherosclerosis risk.</span></p> Imane BOURAGBA Hannane BOULARBAG Mustapha DIAF ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-04-13 2020-04-13 8 1 51 57 10.21467/ajgr.8.1.51-57 Market Selling Conditions and Storage Methods Influences β-carotene Stability and Retention in Biofortified Gari <p>The influence of regular market selling conditions and storage methods on β-carotene stability and retention were investigated in two different biofortified gari types. Freshly processed gari samples obtained from TMS 01/1412 and TMS 01/1371 respectively were exposed to 35-45<sup>0</sup>C sunlight (ESL) and 60 watts electric bulb light (EEB); stored in black polyethylene bag (SPB) and air-tight aluminum container (SAC) respectively. The stability (using area under curve analysis) and retention (%) of β-carotene in all the experiments were monitored and compared over a period of 4 weeks. Results revealed that ESL had a huge negative influence on the stability and retention of β-carotene in the two biofortified gari types. Although EEB showed minimal but progressive negative influence, SAC followed by SPB showed the least negative influence on the nutrient stability. The overall retention of β-carotene in gari processed from TMS 01/1412 and TMS 01/1371 respectively were as follows: ESL (12.1%, 12.8%), EEB (58.5%, 47.5%), SPB (61.9%, 50.8%) and SAC (60.2%, 82.6%). SAC retained the most appreciable amount of the nutrient thus suggesting it as a better form of storage while ESL lost the largest amount of the nutrient thus portraying it a detrimental market selling condition for the biofortified gari.</p> Cosmos Ifeanyi Onyiba Simeon Ikechukwu Egbachukwu ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-04-22 2020-04-22 8 1 58 67 10.21467/ajgr.8.1.58-67 Effects of Chitosan and Aloe Vera Gel Coatings on the Preservation Characteristics of Cucumber Samples <p>This study evaluated the effect of Chitosan and Aloe vera gel coatings on the preservation of selected cucumber samples. Chitosan was produced from orange-crab shells with 76% degree of deacetylation while homogenized Aloe vera gel extracted from the plants was thermally pre-treated at 70 °C for 30 minutes. Coatings were applied using dipping techniques and air-dried before storage in discrete plots under ambient conditions. The study estimated physicochemical, nutritional and microbiological qualities of the coated and uncoated samples for a period of 4 weeks using standard procedures. Chitosan and Aloe vera gel had antimicrobial effect on the cucumber samples at week three while Chitosan- Aloe vera mix had more antimicrobial effect on the cucumber samples at week four of storage period. Eight bacterial and seven fungal isolates were obtained from the chitosan and Aloe vera coatings on the cucumber samples namely <em>Aeromonas</em>, <em>Bacillus</em>, <em>Pseudomonas</em>, <em>Escherichia</em>, <em>Proteus</em>, <em>Klebsiella</em>, <em>Serratia</em>, <em>Enterobacter</em>, <em>Aspergillus, Penicillium, Fusarium, Rhizopus </em>and<em>, Saccharomyces</em>; with <em>Bacillus subtilis</em> and <em>Aspergillus niger</em> as most occurring bacterial and fungal species respectively. Chitosan, Aloe vera and Chitosan-aloe vera mix coated samples had moisture content, protein content and carbohydrate retention of 95.09±0.01 %, 1.31±0.09 % and 0.46±0.14 %; 94.67±0.14 %, 0.65±0.03 % and 1.61±0.44 % ; 93.76±0.09&nbsp; %, 1.27±0.66 %, and 0.69±0.51 % &nbsp;&nbsp;respectively. &nbsp;It can be concluded that Chitosan and Aloe vera gel coatings are effective in preservation of cucumbers with significant retention of nutrients and reduction in microbial contamination.</p> Adeyinka Elizabeth Ajiboye Phebe Gboyinde ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-06-12 2020-06-12 8 1 82 90 10.21467/ajgr.8.1.82-90 Bioremediation of Spent Engine Oil on Selected Contaminated Soils within Ilorin Metropolis <p>The research aimed to investigate the bioremediation of spent engine oil on selected contaminated soils within Ilorin metropolis. To achieve this, soil samples were collected from three (3) mechanic workshops along Taiwo axis within the metropolis. The soil samples were then subjected to bioremediation using the land-farming approach. The physicochemical parameters of the soil samples before and after bioremediation were analyzed using standard methods. Bacteria were isolated using standard procedures and identified using biochemical tests and molecular methods. Results for the physicochemical parameters of the soil samples before bioremediation include particle size (all sandy in nature); pH (6.00 ± 0.14 - 6.20 ± 0.14); Organic carbon (14.65 ± 3.20 - 17.54 ± 1.87), Organic matter (33.50 ± 0.85 - 43.45 ± 9.12) and heavy metals (ND - 11.74 ± 0.07). Values after bioremediation for pH, organic carbon, organic matter and heavy metals were 8.25 ± 0.07 - 8.90 ± 0.14, 13.07 ± 0.05 - 13.25 ± 0.84, 37.25 ± 1.06 - 44.80 ± 1.13, ND - 9.40 ± 0.04 respectively. Values for bacterial count before and after bioremediation of the soil samples were 8.00 &nbsp;1.41 - 67.50 ± 2.12 x 10<sup>5 </sup>CFU/mL and 6.50 ± 2.12 - 164.00 ± 11.31 x 10<sup>5 </sup>CFU/mL respectively. Bacterial isolates were identified as <em>Pseudomonas</em> sp.,<em> Enterobacter</em> sp., <em>Acinetobacter</em> sp., and <em>Bacillus</em> sp. while the hydrocarbon-utilizing bacteria were identified as<em> Thalassospira mesophila</em> strain JCM 18969; <em>Pseudomonas fluorescens</em> F113; <em>Siccibacter turicensis</em> LMG 23730; <em>Pseudomonas Zeshuii</em> strain KACC 15471; <em>Pseudomonas stutzeri</em> strain CGMCC 1.1803 and <em>Marinobacter hydrocarbonoclasticus</em> strain ATCC 49840. In conclusion, the bacteria isolates effectively bioremediated the spent engine oil contaminated soils with a reduction of hydrocarbon pollutants.</p> Elizabeth Adeyinka AJIBOYE Hikmat Omolara SULAYMAN Abdullahi Taiwo AJAO ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-06-13 2020-06-13 8 1 91 104 10.21467/ajgr.8.1.91-104 Assessing the Macronutrient Status of Some Selected Soils in Bayelsa State, South-South Nigeria <p>Fertility status of soils within the south-south region of Nigeria varies both inter and intra states. Therefore, the study investigated the macronutrient status of some selected soils in Bayelsa State. Two farm sites in Opume (OPF) and Amassoma (AMF) with records of long term cultivation were randomly selected and soil samples randomly collected from each locality for physico-chemical analyses. Data collected were subjected to statistical analysis of means and a post hoc regression analysis to determine relationships between soils and analyzed parameters. Results revealed that soils were loam to sandy clay loam and acidic with low pH levels. Exchangeable bases (Ca<sup>2+</sup>, Mg<sup>2+</sup>, K<sup>+</sup>) were low in AMF soils compared to OPF soils except for Na<sup>+</sup>. Organic carbon and organic matter were moderately low in both soils, however, AMF had lower contents. Total N were found to be critically low (0.03%) in both soils. OPF had higher available phosphorus (5.09 mg/kg) while AMF had higher available sulphur (6.55 mg/kg). Base saturation was high moderate in OPF (50.44 %), however, not significantly different (p&lt;0.05) from AMF. Similarly, Effective Cation Exchange Capacity (ECEC) was low in soils of both localities. Regression analysis showed that pH had significant positive relationships with sand, Org C, Org M, available P, TN, % B.S and the basic cations (r=0.534*, 0.841***, 0.837***, 0.855***, 0.736***, 0.856**) with a negative relationship with Exchangeable acidity and SO<sub>4</sub><sup>2-</sup> (r=-0.799** and 0.844***). Org C, Org M and TN had significant negative relationships with silt at both localities (r=-0.592**, -0.592** and -0.491*) respectively. These results indicate clearly that the nutrient status of soils in the study areas are mostly controlled by pH and the textural distribution. It also indicates that improved soil management practices can improve the macronutrient status for increased crop production.</p> Kelvin Harrison Diri Tate Oyinbrakemi Joseph ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-06-13 2020-06-13 8 1 105 114 10.21467/ajgr.8.1.105-114 Gender Effect on Some Blood Parameters in Patients Undergoing Haemodialysis in North Western Algeria <p class="Abstract"><span lang="EN-IN">Replacement therapy for chronic kidney disease using haemodialysis involves the elimination of excessive toxic fluids and toxic metabolic end products from the body. Worldwide, gender significant differences exist with regard to the epidemiological aspect, evolution and blood parameters of chronic renal failure disease. In the present retrospective study, 289 medical files of adult patients (154 men and 135 women) aged 20 to 78 years were investigated to understand the relationship between gender difference and blood parameters in patients with chronic renal failure undergoing haemodialysis in north western Algeria. Our results revealed significant higher levels of haemoglobin (<em>p</em>=0.003), haematocrit (<em>p</em>=0.005), creatinine (<em>p</em>&lt;0.001) and uric acid (<em>p</em>=0.037) in men comparing to women. However, women serum samples were characterized by higher significant level of platelets (<em>p</em>=0.002). No significant differences (<em>p</em></span><span lang="EN-IN" style="font-family: 'Times New Roman',serif;">˃</span><span lang="EN-IN">0.005) were observed between the two genders regarding the other parameters of blood count formula, liver function parameters, urea, mineral status (calcemia and phosphoremia), basic biochemical levels (glycaemia and lipids), C-reactive protein&nbsp;(CRP) and parathyroid hormone&nbsp;(PTH). In dialysis patients, and despite the fact that some serum parameters vary significantly, the majority of the parameters recorded were often high in the males compared to the female gender. This finding may be due to the existence of specific confounding prognostic factors for each sex, which may or may not compensate for each other, therefore, ultimately, leading to overall non-significance.</span></p> Mouna MEGHRAOUI Achouak Kheira MEDDAH Mustapha DIAF Mohamed DIAF ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-07-03 2020-07-03 8 1 115 120 10.21467/ajgr.8.1.115-120 Trained Immunity at a Glance; A Review on the Innate Immune Memory and its Potential Role in Infections, Diseases and New Therapeutic Strategies <p>Despite the existence of two different branches of immunity, innate and adaptive, it has been described that both systems are characterized by the establishment of memory responses. Indeed, it has been shown that cells belonging to the innate immune system can express a so-called “trained” memory, although it has different features from the adaptive immune memory. Adaptive memory is a long-lasting specific memory whereas innate memory involves non-specific responses which enhance the immune response during a second reinfection. However, many aspects of the trained immunity are still unclear. Metabolic and epigenetic reprogramming have been pointed as the two processes responsible for the establishment of the innate memory. Trained immunity seems to be responsible for the heterologous effect of many vaccines such as BCG, thus giving insights for the development of new therapies. Although its potential beneficial role, trained immunity could also have detrimental effects that might worsen the progress of certain diseases. The purpose of this literature review is to provide an in-depth review on the major characteristics of trained immunity, describing the main pathways at the basis of the evolution and establishment of memory in innate cells. In addition, the present review assesses the modern evidence of the impact of trained immunity in health and disease, strengthening the hypotheses that this innate memory may be considered both in the formulation of new therapeutic strategies and in the current therapeutic approaches.</p> Silvia Incalcaterra Jorge Andres Dominguez ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-04-25 2020-04-25 8 1 68 81 10.21467/ajgr.8.1.68-81