Advanced Journal of Graduate Research <p align="justify"><a title="Click for Journal homepage" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><img style="float: right; padding-left: 15px; padding-right: 5px;" src="/public/site/images/aabahishti/AJGR_Cover_Page.jpg" alt="AJGR"></a>Advanced Journal of Graduate Research is a multidisciplinary, international journal featuring the work of graduate students and young researchers. This journal seeks to disseminate the work of emerging students who focus on scientific/technical content, regardless of their academic discipline.&nbsp;<em>Adv. J. Grad. Res.</em> publishes research carried out by graduate students and young researchers (Bachelor degree students and Master degree students) that sound&nbsp;scientifically and technically valid. This journal will serve as a global platform to broadcast new research initiatives being carried out by today’s brightest youths as part of their graduate project.<br>Advanced Journal of Graduate Research is published by AIJR publisher (India) and registered with CrossRef with doi: 10.21467/ajgr&nbsp;and ISSN of this journal is &nbsp;2456-7108 [online].</p> AIJR Publisher en-US Advanced Journal of Graduate Research 2456-7108 <div id="copyrightNotice">Author(s) retains full copyright of their article and grants non-exclusive publishing right to&nbsp;this journal and its publisher “<a title="AIJR Publisher homepage" href="" target="_blank">AIJR</a>&nbsp;(India)”. Author(s) can archive pre-print, post-print and published version/PDF to any open access, institutional repository, social media or personal website provided that Published source must be acknowledged with citation and link to publisher version.<br>Click&nbsp;<a title="Copyright Policy" href="" target="_blank">here</a>&nbsp;for more information on Copyright policy<br>Click&nbsp;<a title="Licensing Policy" href="/index.php/ajgr/about#licensing" target="_blank">here</a>&nbsp;for more information on Licensing policy</div> Solar Dynamical Processes II <p>The present article is the successor of <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Solar Dynamical Processes I</a>. The previous article was focused on the Sun, its magnetic field with an emphasis on various dynamical processes occurring on the Sun, e.g. sunspots, prominence and bright points which in turn plays a fundamental role in regulating the space weather. This article is emphasized on the solar dynamical processes and develop an extensive understanding of the various phenomena involved in their origin. The article also covers various models and hypothesis put forward by pioneer scientists on the basis of their observation by space-borne and ground-based instruments. This article shade light over a wide range of dynamical processes e.g., solar flares, coronal mass ejections, solar jets and coronal holes. Solar jets, the small-scale transient activities are found to have association with the other transient activities (e.g., mini-flares and mini-filaments). Flares as well as the coronal mass ejections are responsible for releasing a large amount of high energy charged particles and magnetic flux into the interplanetary space, and are being considered as the main drivers of space weather.</p> Ashish Mishra Mukul Kumar ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-02-11 2019-02-11 6 1 1 13 10.21467/ajgr.6.1.1-13 Direct Carbon Fuel Cell-Cleaner and Efficient Future Power Generation Technology <p>Increasing greenhouse effect due to the burning of fossil fuels has stirred the attention of researchers towards cleaner and efficient technologies. Direct carbon fuel cell (DCFC) is one such emerging technology that could generate electricity from solid carbon like coal and biogas in a more efficient and environmental-friendly way. The mechanism involves electrochemical oxidation of carbon to produce energy and highly pure carbon dioxide. Due to higher purity, the produced carbon dioxide can be captured easily to avoid its release in the environment. The carbon dioxide is produced in a gaseous state while the fuel used is in a solid state. Due to different phases, all of the fuel can be recovered from the cell and can be reused, ensuring complete (100%) fuel utilization with no fuel losses. Moreover, DCFC operates at a temperature lower than conventional fuel cells. The electric efficiency of a DCFC is around 80% which is nearly double the efficiency of coal thermal plant. In addition, DCFC produces pure carbon dioxide as compared to the thermal power plant which reduces the cost of CO2 separation and dumping. In different types of DCFCs, molten carbon fuel cell is considered to be superior due to its low operating temperature and high efficiency. This paper provides a comprehensive review of the direct carbon fuel cell technology and recent advances in this field. The paper is focused on the fundamentals of fuel cell, history, operating principle, its types, applications, future challenges, and development.</p> Uzair Ibrahim Ahsan Ayub ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-02-23 2019-02-23 6 1 14 30 10.21467/ajgr.6.1.14-30 Relevance Feedback Utilizing Secure Evaluation with Content-based Image Retrieval in Cloud Computing <p>Content-based image retrieval (CBIR) is the integrated system of the photograph fetching trouble for instance difficulty of chasing down pictures on a cloud in big datasets. To recognize request semantics and client’s needs if you want to grant submitted consequences with reference to exactness, relevance feedback is combined into CBIR shape. Important evaluation shape will manufacture the precision of yield and will pass at hugest yield. In the watermark-primarily based tradition, a singular watermark is explicitly inserted in blended photos by means of the cloud environment earlier than photos, transmitted towards inquiry mortal. In this way, when an illicit photograph reproduction is located, the illicit inquiry mortal, where appropriates can trail the pictures with the aid of the watermark extraction. Characteristics vectors get assured by using the secure hashing algorithm, analyzing and making ready age are used at image user’s aspect for confirmation motive. TPA (third party auditor) is used to understand enforcement or malevolent activities achieved in cloud circumstances. In our proposed framework, we are including the approach of misrepresentation recognition by generating trapdoor using a hashing calculation, as a document is made with the unique identifier and the client pictures with the names after the link are simplest, a trapdoor is generated.</p> Sonali Sakhahari Panchal Shital Y Gaikwad ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-05-27 2019-05-27 6 1 31 40 10.21467/ajgr.6.1.31-40 Comparison of Fructose and Glycerol as Plasticizers in Cassava Bioplastic Production <p>This research paper is an investigation into the effects of fructose and glycerol as plasticizers in cassava bioplastic production. The experiments were carried out at the University of Eastern Africa, Baraton Department of Chemistry. The objectives of the research were to produce cassava-based bioplastics in the University of Eastern Africa, Baraton Chemistry Department Laboratory, to investigate the use of fructose and glycerol as plasticizers in the production of the cassava-based bioplastics and to conduct physical and chemical quality tests on the bioplastics to determine which plasticizer is best for industrial use. A Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) was used in the experiments. The parameters measured were film thickness, density, moisture content, solubility in water, water absorption, swelling index, and biodegradability test. Overall, fructose as a plasticizer is recommended over glycerol and over fructose and glycerol.</p> Stephen Mukuze Hillary Magut Frankson Lovemore Mkandawire ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-07-08 2019-07-08 6 1 41 52 10.21467/ajgr.6.1.41-52 An Observational Review and Analysis of Qualitative Data to Explore the Benefits of Equine Assisted Learning in Improving the Engagement of Adolescents with Complex Learning Needs, within the Educational Setting <p>The study determined whether Equine Assisted Learning (EAL) acted as a positive influence to improve the engagement of adolescents with complex learning needs, within their educational setting. The past two years has seen a continuous increase in the number of pupils with complex learning needs in the UK, from 1,244,255 in January 2017 to 1,276,215 in January 2018, an increase from 14.4% to 14.6%. These increasing figures provide a clear rationale for the requirement for a greater utilisation of various learning intervention tools, to begin to meet the dynamic needs of these learners. Seven participants engaged in six EAL sessions over six weeks and were involved in an array of unmounted EAL activities. Questionnaires were formulated with reference to the “Student Engagement (SE) Survey” and were presented to both staff and parents at three points throughout the study, along with Carpenters approved engagement scale for staff to complete weekly, within the lesson following the EAL session. Furthermore, observational research was conducted by the researcher to generate a supportive discussion for the obtained results. Through the quantitative data formulated no significant difference was shown, however a moderate positive correlation between the before and after results of staff and parent questionnaires was presented (Staff Questionnaire p =.119366. Parent Questionnaire p = .145547). Further trends also began to emerge, with correlations forming between improved engagement and specific EAL activities, providing a direction for future research.</p> Gabrielle Madders Ruth M Orrell-Stokes ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-07-22 2019-07-22 6 1 53 59 Application of Simple Average Weighting Optimization Method in the Selection of Best Desktop Computer Model <p>Multi-Criteria Decision Making (MCDM) is one of the most emerging concepts in today’s world which enables a decision maker to select the best strategies among different available alternatives. MCDM technique helps to remove the biasness and confusion while selecting a product or process. In recent few years different MCDM methodologies finds wide area of applications in industries as well as in our daily life. In this paper, such one type of application is broadly described. One example is taken from our daily life, which is generally faced by most of the students while purchasing a desktop computer. The main objective of this paper is to select the best desktop computer models among five different models actual available in the market having different configurations. For this analysis, 100 computer users have been surveyed to know their relative preferences and choices, which of the computer specifications is most important to them. For this present analysis few numbers of criteria have been considered and also there are number of sub-criteria within each criterion (for example, the processor may be different for different models like I3, I5, I7 etc.). The MCDM methodology which is adopted for this selection process is known as Simple Average Weighting (SAW) method.</p> Soupaya Mitra Shankha Shubhra Goswami ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-07-22 2019-07-22 6 1 60 68