Advanced Journal of Graduate Research https://journals.aijr.in/index.php/ajgr <p align="justify"><a title="Click for Journal homepage" href="https://doi.org/10.21467/ajgr" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><img style="float: right; padding-left: 15px; padding-right: 5px;" src="/public/site/images/aabahishti/AJGR_Cover_Page.jpg" alt="AJGR"></a>Advanced Journal of Graduate Research is a multidisciplinary, international journal featuring the work of graduate students and young researchers. This journal seeks to disseminate the work of emerging students who focus on scientific/technical content, regardless of their academic discipline.&nbsp;<em>Adv. J. Grad. Res.</em> publishes research carried out by graduate students and young researchers (Bachelor degree students and Master degree students) that sound&nbsp;scientifically and technically valid. This journal will serve as a global platform to broadcast new research initiatives being carried out by today’s brightest youths as part of their graduate project.<br>Advanced Journal of Graduate Research is published by AIJR publisher (India) and registered with CrossRef with doi: 10.21467/ajgr&nbsp;and ISSN of this journal is &nbsp;2456-7108 [online].</p> AIJR Publisher en-US Advanced Journal of Graduate Research 2456-7108 <div id="copyrightNotice">Author(s) retains full copyright of their article and grants non-exclusive publishing right to&nbsp;this journal and its publisher “<a title="AIJR Publisher homepage" href="https://www.aijr.in/" target="_blank">AIJR</a>&nbsp;(India)”. Author(s) can archive pre-print, post-print and published version/PDF to any open access, institutional repository, social media or personal website provided that Published source must be acknowledged with citation and link to publisher version.<br>Click&nbsp;<a title="Copyright Policy" href="https://www.aijr.in/about/policies/copyright/" target="_blank">here</a>&nbsp;for more information on Copyright policy<br>Click&nbsp;<a title="Licensing Policy" href="/index.php/ajgr/about#licensing" target="_blank">here</a>&nbsp;for more information on Licensing policy</div> Solar Dynamical Processes II https://journals.aijr.in/index.php/ajgr/article/view/456 <p>The present article is the successor of <a href="https://doi.org/10.21467/ajgr.3.1.47-61" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Solar Dynamical Processes I</a>. The previous article was focused on the Sun, its magnetic field with an emphasis on various dynamical processes occurring on the Sun, e.g. sunspots, prominence and bright points which in turn plays a fundamental role in regulating the space weather. This article is emphasized on the solar dynamical processes and develop an extensive understanding of the various phenomena involved in their origin. The article also covers various models and hypothesis put forward by pioneer scientists on the basis of their observation by space-borne and ground-based instruments. This article shade light over a wide range of dynamical processes e.g., solar flares, coronal mass ejections, solar jets and coronal holes. Solar jets, the small-scale transient activities are found to have association with the other transient activities (e.g., mini-flares and mini-filaments). Flares as well as the coronal mass ejections are responsible for releasing a large amount of high energy charged particles and magnetic flux into the interplanetary space, and are being considered as the main drivers of space weather.</p> Ashish Mishra Mukul Kumar ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2019-02-11 2019-02-11 6 1 1 13 10.21467/ajgr.6.1.1-13 Direct Carbon Fuel Cell-Cleaner and Efficient Future Power Generation Technology https://journals.aijr.in/index.php/ajgr/article/view/939 <p>Increasing greenhouse effect due to the burning of fossil fuels has stirred the attention of researchers towards cleaner and efficient technologies. Direct carbon fuel cell (DCFC) is one such emerging technology that could generate electricity from solid carbon like coal and biogas in a more efficient and environmental-friendly way. The mechanism involves electrochemical oxidation of carbon to produce energy and highly pure carbon dioxide. Due to higher purity, the produced carbon dioxide can be captured easily to avoid its release in the environment. The carbon dioxide is produced in a gaseous state while the fuel used is in a solid state. Due to different phases, all of the fuel can be recovered from the cell and can be reused, ensuring complete (100%) fuel utilization with no fuel losses. Moreover, DCFC operates at a temperature lower than conventional fuel cells. The electric efficiency of a DCFC is around 80% which is nearly double the efficiency of coal thermal plant. In addition, DCFC produces pure carbon dioxide as compared to the thermal power plant which reduces the cost of CO2 separation and dumping. In different types of DCFCs, molten carbon fuel cell is considered to be superior due to its low operating temperature and high efficiency. This paper provides a comprehensive review of the direct carbon fuel cell technology and recent advances in this field. The paper is focused on the fundamentals of fuel cell, history, operating principle, its types, applications, future challenges, and development.</p> Uzair Ibrahim Ahsan Ayub ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2019-02-23 2019-02-23 6 1 14 30 10.21467/ajgr.6.1.14-30