Advanced Journal of Graduate Research https://journals.aijr.in/index.php/ajgr <p align="justify"><a title="Click for Journal homepage" href="https://doi.org/10.21467/ajgr" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><img style="float: right; padding-left: 15px; padding-right: 5px;" src="/public/site/images/aabahishti/AJGR_Cover_Page.jpg" alt="AJGR"></a>Advanced Journal of Graduate Research is a multidisciplinary, international journal featuring the work of graduate students and young researchers. This journal seeks to disseminate the work of emerging students who focus on scientific/technical content, regardless of their academic discipline.&nbsp;<em>Adv. J. Grad. Res.</em> publishes research carried out by graduate students and young researchers (Bachelor degree students and Master degree students) that sound&nbsp;scientifically and technically valid. This journal will serve as a global platform to broadcast new research initiatives being carried out by today’s brightest youths as part of their graduate project.<br>Advanced Journal of Graduate Research is published by AIJR publisher (India) and registered with CrossRef with doi: 10.21467/ajgr&nbsp;and ISSN of this journal is &nbsp;2456-7108 [online].</p> AIJR Publisher en-US Advanced Journal of Graduate Research 2456-7108 <div id="copyrightNotice">Author(s) retains full copyright of their article and grants non-exclusive publishing right to&nbsp;this journal and its publisher “<a title="AIJR Publisher homepage" href="https://www.aijr.in/" target="_blank">AIJR</a>&nbsp;(India)”. Author(s) can archive pre-print, post-print and published version/PDF to any open access, institutional repository, social media or personal website provided that Published source must be acknowledged with citation and link to publisher version.<br>Click&nbsp;<a title="Copyright Policy" href="https://www.aijr.in/about/policies/copyright/" target="_blank">here</a>&nbsp;for more information on Copyright policy<br>Click&nbsp;<a title="Licensing Policy" href="/index.php/ajgr/about#licensing" target="_blank">here</a>&nbsp;for more information on Licensing policy</div> Effect of Salinity Difference on Lipid Content from Chaetoceros muelleri on Continuous Reactors https://journals.aijr.in/index.php/ajgr/article/view/1931 <p><em>Chaetoceros muelleri</em> is a microalgae class of <em>Bacillariophyta (diatom)</em> which is generally only used as feeds for fishes and shellfish larvae. Nevertheless, the biochemical content of this species is quite high and has the potential to be developed. This research aims to explain the effect of different salinity on the growth and lipid content of <em>Chaetoceros muelleri</em> cultured in a continuous photobioreactor. This research was carried out in August 2018 - February 2019. The research was conducted at the Laboratory of Marine Microbiology and the Laboratory of Bioprocess and Bioprospection of Natural Materials, Faculty of Fisheries and Marine Sciences, Padjadjaran University. The samples of <em>Chaetoceros muelleri</em> isolates were obtained from the Jepara Brackish Water Aquaculture Center. The methods used for the study was a ‘Completely Randomized Design’ (CRD) with four treatments. The salinity used is 15, 25, 35 and 45 ppt. The main parameters observed were growth and lipid content, while the supporting parameters were temperature, and pH. The results of this study showed that the highest lipid content was a salinity treatment of 35 ppt with a value of 25.37% of total dry weight obtained at the end of the culture. Based on growth, the highest density occurred in 25 ppt salinity with a maximum density of 3.80 ± 0.49 x 106 cells. ml-1 and maximum growth rate of 0.36 ± 0.008 div. day-1</p> Arif Rahmadi Yeni Mulyani Muhammad Wahyudin Lewaru ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2019-08-31 2019-08-31 7 1 3 10 10.21467/ajgr.7.1.3-10 A Numerical Calculation of Arbitrary Integrals of Functions https://journals.aijr.in/index.php/ajgr/article/view/2000 <p>This paper presents a numerical technique for solving fractional integrals of functions by employing the trapezoidal rule in conjunction with the finite difference scheme. The proposed scheme is only a simple modification of the trapezoidal rule, in which it is treated as an algorithm in a sequence of small intervals for finding accurate approximate solutions to the corresponding problems. This method was applied to solve fractional integral of arbitrary order α &gt; 0 for various values of alpha. The fractional integrals are described in the Riemann-Liouville sense. Figurative comparisons and error analysis between the exact value, two-point and three-point central difference formulae reveal that this modified method is active and convenient.</p> John Ojima Mamman Terhemen Aboiyar ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2019-10-20 2019-10-20 7 1 11 17 10.21467/ajgr.7.1.11-17 Mechanical and Physical Properties of Polyester Reinforced Glass Fibre/Orange Peel Particulate Hybrid Composite https://journals.aijr.in/index.php/ajgr/article/view/2068 <p>This study was focused on the development of hybrid composed using orange peel particulate dispersed in an unsaturated polyester resin reinforced with chopped strands of E-glass fibers. Orange peel particulate of about 350µm sieve size, of varying weight percentage (3, 6, 9,12 and 15) wt.% and E-glass fiber of constant weight percentage 25.1wt% was used as reinforcements in a polyester matrix. The effect of the orange peel particulate on the physical and mechanical properties of the resulting composite such as tensile strength, bending strength, impact strength and hardness strength was investigated. The results showed remarkable improvement in mechanical properties with increase in percentage of particulate reinforcement. Tensile strength varies from 50.0 to 62.6 MPa, Hardness values varies between 28.6 and 40.8HRB, Impact energy at room temperature, varies between 5.0 to 7.4 Joules, as a function of fiber weight fractions and the flexural strength varies from 74.0 to 85.2 MPa. The best mechanical properties were obtained at 15 Wt.% particulate reinforcements. The results of the physical tests show that the water absorption increases as the weight percentage of the particulate reinforcement increases and the same condition also holds for the density.</p> Rabiu Onoruoiza Mamman Aliyu Mohammed Ramalan ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2019-10-20 2019-10-20 7 1 18 26 10.21467/ajgr.7.1.18-26 Flight to Light Response of Red Pumpkin Beetle (Aulacophora africana Weise) to Differently Coloured Light-emitting Diode and Incandescent Bulb Lights https://journals.aijr.in/index.php/ajgr/article/view/2111 <p>Red pumpkin beetle (<em>Aulacophora africana </em>Weise) is an important defoliator and vector of pathogens to its numerous crop hosts. Control had largely been by synthetic insecticides with their attendant consequences on man and the environment thus necessitating scientific studies on environmental-friendly management strategies. The experiment was conducted in the Research Farm of Federal University Wukari in the month of May 2019 with the aim of evaluating the attractiveness of <em>A. africana </em>to Light-emitting diode (LED) and Incandescent Light bulb colours. Five colours (red, yellow, green, blue and white) were used for the study. Each colour light was properly projected on 2 metre vertical screen (made of white polyethene) placed one meter above the ground. A setup without bulb served as the control. The light traps were arranged in a completely randomized design (CRD) in 6 replicates and ran simultaneously for six hours (1800 to 2400hrs). The pumpkin beetles attracted were collected in tubs containing soapy water. <em>A. africana</em> collected were counted and recorded according to bulb type and colour. Samples were identified at the Insect Museum of Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria. Among the Incandescent bulbs, White colour was most attractive to <em>A. africana</em> (4.30±0.38) while red attracted the least (0.71±0.01). Among LED bulbs, Blue was most attractive (3.99±1.01) while Red also attracted the least (0.78±0.03). Overall, LED attracted more pumpkin beetles than Incandescent bulb even though Student Newman Keul’s test indicates that the difference between them was due to random variation (p = 0.16). Correlation and regression analyses indicated increase in insect attraction with increased light intensity. The results, therefore, suggest that white Incandescent or blue LED bulb colours can be incorporated into insecticidal light traps to suppress their population/attract them away from host plants or fixed into ordinary light traps to harvest the insect for scientific studies.</p> Chukwu Alexander Timothy Nuhu Samiala Emmanuel Okrikata ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2019-11-25 2019-11-25 7 1 64 69 10.21467/ajgr.7.1.64-69 Monosodium Glutamate Plus Artemether-lumefantrine Overdose Altered Malondialdehyde, Total Protein and Albumin Concentration in Rats https://journals.aijr.in/index.php/ajgr/article/view/2121 <p>This study aimed at assessing alterations in malondialdehyde, MDA, total protein and albumin concentration in the serum and liver homogenate of monosodium glutamate (MSG)-challenged rats co-treated with artemether-lumefantrine, AL. Methods involving colourimetric estimation were employed in thirty rats randomly grouped into six (n = 5) and for seven consecutive days, fed feed and water (Group A), AL therapeutic dose (Group B), AL overdose (therapeutic dose × 5) (Group C), MSG (8000 mg/kg body weight) (Group D), AL therapeutic dose plus MSG (Group E) or AL overdose plus MSG (Group F). Total protein concentration (2.64±0.09 g/dL, 2.81±0.14g/dL, respectively) in the liver homogenate of rats exposed to MSG (group D) or MSG plus AL overdose (group F) and malondialdehyde concentration in the liver homogenate of MSG plus AL overdose-fed rats (0.45±0.04 mg/ml) lowered (P&lt;0.05) as against other groups. However, serum albumin concentration in MSG (2.59±0.13 g/dl) or AL overdose plus MSG (3.24±0.12 g/dl) fed rats was higher (P&lt;0.05) compared to the control (2.02±0.04 g/dl). The Total protein: Albumin ratio lowered while the Albumin: total protein ratio increased in rats in MSG, AL overdose plus MSG or AL overdose groups compared with the control. Thus, the apparent MSG plus AL overdose-induced adverse influence on the studied parameters and samples of non-malarial infested rats could be <em>via </em>compromised liver-mediated protein metabolism capacity and bio-functions following possibly enhanced protein-malondialdehyde adduct formation in the rats.</p> Anthony Cemaluk Chinedum Egbuonu Emmanuel Obi Chinedu P Nwuke Cynthia Uchechi Simon Justina Utodinachi Oleghibe Nnaemeka Raymond Ezenwafor Ebere Mercy Chukwu ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2019-12-07 2019-12-07 7 1 70 79 10.21467/ajgr.7.1.70-79 Analysis of the Weak Soil Behavior, Modified Through Cementation https://journals.aijr.in/index.php/ajgr/article/view/2060 <p>The purpose of the study is to conduct thorough theoretical research and literature overview regarding possible ways of soil stabilization on the basis of this practice increasing demand. In particular an emphasis is made on the chemical technique for weak soils strengthening, due to its prevalence and various practical and economic advantages. Great amount of promiscuous data was analyzed and organized; in addition on its basis an attempt is made to provide convincing calculation technique for further usage in engineering soils` stabilization practice. Besides, various factors which could influence on the results` accuracy are identified with corresponding recommendations for further possible research on this issue.</p> Nadiia Kopiika Yuriy Petrenko ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2019-10-20 2019-10-20 7 1 27 36 10.21467/ajgr.7.1.27-36 Plasmonics: A Path to Replace Electronics and Photonics by Scalable Ultra-fast Technology https://journals.aijr.in/index.php/ajgr/article/view/1961 <p>Semiconductor devices, circuits, and components are dependent upon miniaturization for transporting huge amounts of data at a high speed these provide the ability to control the transport and storage of electrons. Current communication systems are based on either electrons or photonics. These modern electronic devices for information processing and sensing are functioning almost close to their fundamental speed and bandwidth limitations which a serious problem. The performance of electronic circuits, as well as photonics, is now becoming rather limited when digital information needs to be sent from one point to another. Plasmonics is a new technology a kind of photonics-based on surface plasmons viable. Surface plasmons are a way of guiding light. Surface Plasmon (SP) based circuits, which merge electronics and photonics at the nanoscale, may offer a solution to the size-compatibility problem. Optical fiber communication (OFC) is a well-known light enabled information transmission mechanism communicates very effectively over large distance. Surface plasmons, on the other hand, can guide light only over distances of tens or hundreds of microns. Surface plasmons are the electromagnetic (optical) waves get generated from the interaction between light and the mobile conduction electrons on the surface of a metal. The surface plasmons created by the interaction of light near the surface possess unique advantages like the high speed of communication which is very essential for the current generation of electrical and medical fields.</p> Mallikarjun G Hudedmani Bindu Suresh Pagad ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2019-10-27 2019-10-27 7 1 37 44 10.21467/ajgr.7.1.37-44 Effects of Biochar Amendment on Soil Problems and Improving Rice Production under Salinity Conditions https://journals.aijr.in/index.php/ajgr/article/view/2047 <p>Soil with poor physio-chemical and biological properties prevent plant growth. These poor characteristics may be due to soil creation processes, but also include largely inappropriate agricultural practices and/or anthropogenic pollution. During the last 4 decades, the world has lost one-third of its cropland due to pollution and erosion. Therefore, a series of operations is required to improve and recover the soil. Biochar is a new multifunctional carbon material extensively used as a modifier to improve soil quality and crop production. Previous studies have discussed the properties of biochar with varying soil pollutants and their effects on soil productivity and carbon sequestration. Comparatively, little attention has been paid to the effects of biochar application on rice growth in the problem of soils, especially in the saline-sodic soils. A comprehensive review of the literature with a high focusing on the effects of biochar application on problem soils and rice-growing under salinity conditions is needed. The present review gives an overview of the soil's problem, biochar amendment effects on physicochemical properties of soil, and how the biochar amendment could interact in soil microbes and root with remediation under salinity conditions for improving rice productivity. The findings of this review showed that biochar application can improve soil quality, reduce soil's problem and increase rice production under salinity conditions. It is anticipated that further researches on the biochar amendment will increase our understanding of the interactions of biochar with soil components, accelerate our attempts on soil remediation, and improve rice production under salinity conditions.</p> Gulaqa Aqa Anwari Ajmal Mandozai Jin Feng ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2019-10-28 2019-10-28 7 1 45 63 10.21467/ajgr.7.1.45-63