Advanced Journal of Graduate Research https://journals.aijr.in/index.php/ajgr <p align="justify"><a title="Click for Journal homepage" href="https://doi.org/10.21467/ajgr" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><img style="float: right; padding-left: 15px; padding-right: 5px;" src="/public/site/images/aabahishti/AJGR_Cover_Page.jpg" alt="AJGR"></a>Advanced Journal of Graduate Research is a multidisciplinary, international journal featuring the work of graduate students and young researchers. This journal seeks to disseminate the work of emerging students who focus on scientific/technical content, regardless of their academic discipline.&nbsp;<em>Adv. J. Grad. Res.</em> publishes research carried out by graduate students and young researchers (Bachelor degree students and Master degree students) that sound&nbsp;scientifically and technically valid. This journal will serve as a global platform to broadcast new research initiatives being carried out by today’s brightest youths as part of their graduate project.<br>Advanced Journal of Graduate Research is published by AIJR publisher (India) and registered with CrossRef with doi: 10.21467/ajgr&nbsp;and ISSN of this journal is &nbsp;2456-7108 [online].</p> AIJR Publisher en-US Advanced Journal of Graduate Research 2456-7108 <div id="copyrightNotice">Author(s) retains full copyright of their article and grants non-exclusive publishing right to&nbsp;this journal and its publisher “<a title="AIJR Publisher homepage" href="https://www.aijr.in/" target="_blank">AIJR</a>&nbsp;(India)”. Author(s) can archive pre-print, post-print and published version/PDF to any open access, institutional repository, social media or personal website provided that Published source must be acknowledged with citation and link to publisher version.<br>Click&nbsp;<a title="Copyright Policy" href="https://www.aijr.in/about/policies/copyright/" target="_blank">here</a>&nbsp;for more information on Copyright policy<br>Click&nbsp;<a title="Licensing Policy" href="/index.php/ajgr/about#licensing" target="_blank">here</a>&nbsp;for more information on Licensing policy</div> Influence of Feeding Gases on the Composition of Plasma Activated Water https://journals.aijr.in/index.php/ajgr/article/view/3319 <p>As we are all aware that “PLASMA” is the fourth state of matter and about 99% of the universe comprises of plasma. Plasma invariably consists of essential reactive oxygen and nitrogen species which are necessary for agricultural purposes thus making it an interesting subject for research. When water is exposed to plasma arc, its composition changes and forms Plasma Activated Water (PAW). Research studies have proved PAW to be an effective disinfectant and also providing imperative nutrients to plants. This paper reviews the impact of feeding gases such as Air, Ammonia, Argon, Nitrogen, Helium, Oxygen and Carbon dioxide on PAW composition. Hydrogen peroxide, nitrates, nitrites and pH value are the four key aspects of PAW which decide its influence. H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub> helps in bacterial inactivation whereas nitrates and nitrites are a source of nutrients. It is known that nitrites decompose rapidly in water and form compounds that promote bacterial inhibition. Here the impact of using Air, Ammonia, Argon, Nitrogen, Helium, Oxygen, and Carbon dioxide is being reviewed and studied. More specifically, the concentration of major Reactive Oxygen and Nitrogen Species (RONS) formed in the process and the physical properties of PAW at various atmospheres are is discussed in detail.</p> Jyothi Thati Athmeeya Mythri Adepu Ahmed Hashim Raza Dhanush Ankathi Vani Gongalla Copyright (c) 2021 Jyothi Thati, Athmeeya Mythri Adepu, Ahmed Hashim Raza, Dhanush Ankathi, Vani Gongalla http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2021-03-27 2021-03-27 10 1 23 32 10.21467/ajgr.10.1.23-32 Binding Partners of 14-3-3 (YWHA) Protein Isoforms among Mammalian Species, Tissues, and Developmental Stages https://journals.aijr.in/index.php/ajgr/article/view/3442 <p>The 14-3-3 (YWHA or Tyrosine 3-Monooxygenase/Tryptophan 5-Monooxygenase Activation proteins) are a family of abundant, highly conserved, ubiquitous, acidic, and homologous proteins expressed in most eukaryotes ranging from plants to animals, including humans, important in regulating a multitude of cellular processes such as signal transduction, cell cycle, protein trafficking, metabolism, apoptosis, and development. Mammals have been noted contain seven isoforms of these proteins (beta, epsilon, eta, gamma, sigma, tau/theta, and zeta), encoded by separate genes. The 14-3-3 proteins are known to interact with over 200 binding partners in isoform-specific, tissue-specific, and developmental stage-specific ways. The present review article encapsulates previously published research articles that report 14-3-3-interactors, and investigates isoform-specific interactions within a wide array of mammalian species, cells, tissues, organs, and developmental stages. Of the hundreds of binding partners of 14-3-3 discovered till date, this paper focuses on analyzing selected, representative interactors with key functional roles. The study would help a better understanding of isoform-specific interactions of this critical protein family in mammals.</p> Taylor R. Covington Santanu De Copyright (c) 2021 Taylor R. Covington, Santanu De http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2021-03-27 2021-03-27 10 1 16 22 10.21467/ajgr.10.1.16-22 Analysing Road Traffic Situation in Lilongwe: An Agent Based Modelling (ABM) Approach https://journals.aijr.in/index.php/ajgr/article/view/3280 <p>A 15, 451 km road network forms the main mode of transport for Malawi with 26 % paved. With increasing number of vehicles and elongated travel times during rush hour the study analysed the traffic situation on the M1 road between Mchinji and Area 18 roundabouts in Lilongwe City using an agent-based model (ABM). The methodology used game theory’s traffic grip model to analyse traffic flow by controlling traffic variables such as lights, speed limits and the number of vehicles. Each intersection was treated as non-cooperative game where each agent tried to minimize its queue resulting into Q−Nash’s equilibrium as the solution. The ABM tested the empirical relationships of traffic flow parameters in terms of density, flow, acceleration, deceleration, speed, time lost in traffic congestion and fuel consumption. The model was calibrated using traffic data collected through observing 1,312 vehicles sampled against 24,977. The observation results from the road junctions reveal that on average, a vehicle takes 20 mins 18 seconds, 37 minutes 6 seconds, 44 minutes 21 seconds and 58 minutes 53 seconds to exit Chitukuko, Bwandilo, Chilambula roads and Area 18 roundabout respectively upon entering the M1 at Mchinji roundabout. This data was then used to calibrate the business-as-usual model for the peak hour scenario for the road junctions. The model results show that a selected vehicle entering Chitukuko junction travels at an average speed of 22.60 km/hr, until it exits that junction. On average the selected motorists spend 2.52 l/km with a traffic density of 72 v/km. If dualized average speeds improved to 41.54 km/hr while the traffic density declined to 54.42 v/km, saving motorists MK 3,921,624.00 annually. The predictive model of the dual carriage informed that by 2021, commuters will spend MK 5,187,168 on fuel more than single-lane business as usual scenario of 2019.</p> Khetwayo B Sibale Kondwani G Munthali Copyright (c) 2021 khetwayo B Sibale, Kondwani G Munthali http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2021-03-07 2021-03-07 10 1 3 15 10.21467/ajgr.10.1.3-15