Modeling and Optimization of Friction Stir Welding Parameters for Joining Dissimilar Aluminum Alloys

  • Mohamed Mohamed Abd Elnabi Mechanical Design and Production Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt
  • Tarek Abd Elsadek Osman Mechanical Design and Production Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt
  • Alaa Eldeen El Mokadem Mechanical Design and Production Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt
  • Abou Bakr Elshalakany  Production Engineering and Printing Technology Department, Engineering Department, Akhbar El Yom Academy, 6th of October City, Egypt


The objectives of this work are to optimize the process parameters on the mechanical properties (ultimate tensile strength (UTS) and ductility) of dissimilar joints between AA5454 and AA7075 produced by friction stir welding and to determine which of them is significant by using Taguchi L16 optimization method. Seven parameters at two levels were selected in this study. The selected parameters are tool rotational speed, traverse speed, pin profile (based on taper angle), D/d ratio, tool tilt angle, plunge depth, and base metal location. Then, mathematical models are built as function of significant parameters/ interactions using Response Surface Methodology. The results of this work showed that the rotational speed, traverse speed, D/d ratio and plunge depth are significant parameters in determining UTS (Mean, Signal to noise ratio (S/N)) at different confidence levels, but pin profile, location of base metal and tool tilt angle are insignificant parameters at any confidence levels. The traverse speed has the highest contribution to the process for UTS about 18.577 % and 16.943 % for S/N ratio and mean, respectively. The accuracy of the models according to the UTS is 97.678 % and 99.56 %for mean and S/N ratio, respectively. The maximum joint efficiency, compared to the strength of the AA5454, is 85.3%.

Keywords: Friction Stir Welding, Dissimilar Metals, Taguchi Method, Response Surface Methodology, Tensile Strength, Ductility, Process Parameter


Download data is not yet available.


[1]     R. S. Mishra and Z. Y. Ma, ''Friction Stir Welding and Processing,'' Materials  Science and Engineering: R: Reports,  Vol. 50, Issues1-2,  pp. 1-78, 2005. View                                                                                             

[2]     A. Steuwer, M. J. Peel and P.J. Withers, ''Dissimilar Friction Stir Welds in AA5083-AA6082. Part I: Process Parameter Effects on Thermal History and Weld Properties,'' Mater Sci Eng A, Vol. 37A, pp.2183-2193. 2006. View                                                                   

[3]     K. Dehghani, R. Ghorbani and  A. R. Soltanipoor, ''Microstructural evolution and mechanical properties during the friction stir welding of 7075-O aluminum alloy,'' Int J Adv Manuf Technol, Vol. 77, Is. 9–12,  pp. 1671–1679, 2015. View                                                                        

[4]     Ram and Jane  Kumar, ''Parametric Optimization for Friction Stir Welding of AL 6063 Alloy Using Taguchi Technique,''  IJSTE, Vol. 6, Issue 4, pp.604-610, 2016. View                                                                            

[5]     V. Ramgopal, B. Abdullah, A. Mohammed and Y. Yaswanth, ''STRUCTURAL PROPERTIES OF SIMILAR AND DISSIMILAR ALUMINUM ALLOY JOINTS BY FSW,'' ASME International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition, Vol. 2B: Advanced Manufacturing:V02BT02A002, 2014. View                                                                                                                                                                                     

[6]     P. Sadeesh, M. V. Kannan, V. Rajkumar, P. Avinash, N. Arivazhagan, K. D. Ramkumar, and Narayanan, '' Studies on friction stir welding of AA 2024 and AA 6061 dissimilar metals, '' Procedia Engineering 75, pp. 145 –149, 2014. View                                                                                           

[7]     A. S. Vagh1 and S. N. Pandya, ''influence of process parameters on the mechanical properties of friction stir welded aa 2014-t6 alloy using Taguchi orthogonal array,'' IJESET, Vol. 2, Issue 1, pp: 51-58, 2012. View  

[8]     P. M. Krishna, N. Ramanaiah and K. P.  Rao,''Optimization of process parameters for Friction Stir welding of dissimilar Aluminum alloys (AA2024 -T6 and AA6351-T6) by using Taguchi method,''  International Journal of Industrial Engineering Computations 4, pp.71-80, 2013.  View 

[9]     N. T. Kumbhar and K. Bhanumurthy, ''Friction StirWelding of Al 5052 with Al 6061 Alloys’’,  Hindawi-Journal of Metallurgy, Vol. 2012, 2012. View                                                                                                                          

[10]   M. Jayaraman, R. Sivasubramanian, V. Balasubramanian and A. K. Lakshminarayanan,''Optimization of process parameters for friction stir welding of cast aluminum alloy A319 by Taguchi method,''  Journal of Scientific & Industrial Research,  Vol. 68,  pp. 36-43, 2009. View            

[11]   A. K. LAKSHMINARAYANAN and V. BALASUBRAMANIAN,  ''Process parameters optimization for friction stir welding of RDE-40 aluminium alloy using Taguchi technique,''  Trans Nonferrous Met. Soc. China,  Vol. 18, pp. 548-554, 2008. View                                                                                        

[12]  M. J. PEEL, A. STEUWER, P. J.  WITHERS, T.  DICKERSON, Q. SHI and H. SHERCLIFF, ''Dissimilar Friction Stir Welds in AA5083-AA6082. Part I: Process Parameter Effects on Thermal History and Weld Properties, ''  METALLURGICAL AND MATERIALS TRANSACTIONSA,  Vol. 37A, pp. 2183-2193, 2006. View 

[13]   M. M. Abd Elnabi, T. A. Osman, A. El Mokadem and A. B. Elshalakany, ''Mechanical properties and macrostructure of dissimilar friction stir welding of aluminum alloys,'' International Journal of Development Research, Vol. 7,  pp. 11884-11888, 2017. View     

[14]   K. Mallieswaran, R. Padmanabhan and V. Balasubramanian, ''Friction stir welding parameters optimization for tailored welded blank sheets of AA1100 with AA6061 dissimilar alloy using response surface methodology,''  Advances in Materials and Processing Technologies,  pp. 1-16, 2018. View                 

[15]   A. Goyal, P. K. Rohilla and A.  K. Kaushik, ''Optimization of Friction Stir Welding Parameters for AA3003 Aluminum Alloy Joints Using Response Surface Methodology,'' International Journal of Mechanics and Solids, Vol. 9, pp.15-22, 2017. View                                                        

[16]   K. K. Babu, K. Panneerselvam, P. Sathiya, A. N. Haq, S. Sundarrajan, P. Mastanaiah and C. V. S. Murthy, ''Parameter optimization of friction stir welding of cryorolled AA2219 alloy using artificial neural network modeling with genetic algorithm,'' Int J Adv Manuf Technol, pp. 1-15. 2017. View 

[17]   P. G. Kohak and R. R. Navthar,'' Optimization of Process parameters of Friction Stir Welding for Similar HE-30 Aluminium Alloy,'' IRJET, Vol. 4, pp. 1040-1048, 2017. View                                                                    

[18]   S. Jaina, N. Sharma and R. Gupta, ''Dissimilar alloys (AA6082/AA5083) joining by FSW and parametric optimization using Taguchi, grey relational and weight method ,''  Engineering Solid Mechanics, Vol. 6, pp. 51-66, 2018. View  

[19]   R. Sandeep, D. Sudhakara, G. Prasanthi, ''Optimization of Friction Stir Welding Process Parameters to Join Al 5052 and Al 6061 Alloy Plates Using Grey-Taguchi Technique,''  ASME. International Manufacturing Science and Engineering Conference, Vol. 1: Processes ():V001T02A001. 2017. View 

[20]   D. Ram and G. Mahendra, ''OPTIMIZATION OF FSW PROCESS PARAMETER TO ACHIEVE MAXIMUM TENSILE STRENGTH OF ALUMINUM ALLOY AA6061,'' IRJET, Vol. 3,  Is. 2, pp.936-943, 2016. View                                                 

[21]   Saurabh Kumar Gupta, K.N. Pandey, ''Application of Taguchi Method for Optimization of Friction Stir Welding Process Parameters to Joining of Al Alloy,'' Advanced Materials Manufacturing & Characterization, Vol. 3, Issue 1, pp.253-258, 2013. View                                                                                                     

[22]   R. Rafiei, M. Shamanian and M. Fathi, ''Dissimilar friction-stir lap-welding of aluminum-magnesium (AA5052) and aluminum-copper (AA2024) alloys: microstructural evolution and mechanical properties,'' Int J Adv Manuf Technol, pp. 1-18, 2017.    View                                                                             

[23]   O. M. R. Elfar, R. M. Rashad and H. Megahed, '' Process Parameters Optimization for Friction Stir Welding of Pure Aluminium to Brass (CuZn30) using Taguchi Technique'',     MATEC Web of Conferences, Vol. 43, 2016. View                                                                         

[24]   K.  P. Mehta and V. J. Badheka,'' A Review on Dissimilar Friction Stir Welding of Copper to Aluminum: Process, Properties, and Variants,''  Materials and Manufacturing Processes, Vol. 31, pp. 233-254, 2016. View

[25]   Z. Boumerzoug  and Y.Helal, '' Friction Stir Welding of Dissimilar Materials Aluminum AL6061-T6 to Ultra Low Carbon Steel, '' Metals, Vol. 7(2), pp. 42, 2017. View 

[26]   M. Pourali, A. bdollah-zadeh, T. Saeid and  F. Kargar, ''Influence of welding parameters on intermetallic compounds formation in dissimilar steel/aluminum friction stir welds,'' Journal of Alloys and Compounds, Vol. 715, pp. 1-8, 2017. View                                                                                              

[27]   Phillip J. ROSS, 1998, ‘‘Taguchi technique for quality engineering’’, Second edition, Mcgraw-hill, Donnelley& Sons company, ISBN- 0-07-053958-8, pp.  1-327.                         

[28]   ASTM B557-15, Standard Test Methods for Tension Testing Wrought and Cast Aluminum- and Magnesium-Alloy Products, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2015. View

How to Cite
M. Abd Elnabi, T. Osman, A. El Mokadem, and A. Elshalakany , “Modeling and Optimization of Friction Stir Welding Parameters for Joining Dissimilar Aluminum Alloys”, Adv. J. Grad. Res., vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 1-14, Apr. 2018.
Graduate Research Articles