Analysis of Metabolic Biomarkers in Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD); A Comprehensive Review

Authors

  • Shagufta Akhtar Department of Biotechnology, Shoolini University, Bajhol, Himachal Pradesh https://orcid.org/0000-0003-3177-9793
  • Azhar Khan Department of Biotechnology, Shoolini University, Bajhol, Himachal Pradesh

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.21467/ajgr.9.1.46-58

Abstract

Non-alcohol fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the most common chronic liver problems across the world accounting 25% of the global population. The major groups that are mostly affected are young children and obese population. It is identified to be corelated with metabolic syndrome such as mellitus diabetes, hypertension, insulin resistance. Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is the robust form of NAFLD which has led to necro-inflammation and liver fibrosis. The standard and well-known diagnostic method till now is ‘liver biopsy’ but it impedes the examining of the tissue because of its invasive nature. Other diagnostic study usually involved imaging tools MRI or ultrasonography for discriminating simple steatosis with prognostic NASH also have certain limitations. Due to the ever-rising rate of NAFLD, there is an imperative need of developing non-invasive biomarkers for better monitoring and prophecy of the disease. There is also a need for the better treatment for curing NAFLD. In the knowledge of people, it has been observed that medicinal plants have known to possess professional therapeutic properties Swertia chiraiyta, a customary indigenous folk plant primordial to the upper regions of temperate Himalayas, Nepal and Bhutan is used in various ailments of liver disorders, ulcers, fever, diabetes, skin, and various other diseases. The current review focuses on epidemiologic, pathogenetic aspects and both the current and prospective biomarkers involved in NAFLD assessment that has the potential to leverage better understanding of solving the problem. Moreover, it characterizes the current treatment of NAFLD while discussing the other newer dimension of formulation for future prospects.

Keywords:

Non- alcoholic fatty liver disease, biomarkers, NASH, metabolic syndrome, Swertia chirata, Indigenous medicine

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

. Angulo P, Keach JC, Batts KP, Lindor KD. “Independent predictors of liver fibrosis in patients with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis”, Hepatology. 1999 Dec;30(6):1356-62. https://doi.org/10.1002/hep.510300604

. Ahmed MH, Husain NE, Almobarak AO. “Nonalcoholic Fatty liver disease and risk of diabetes and cardiovascular disease: what is important for primary care physicians”, Journal of family medicine and primary care. 2015 Jan;4(1):45. https://dx.doi.org/10.4103%2F2249-4863.152252

. Younossi Z, Anstee QM, Marietti M, Hardy T, Henry L, Eslam M, George J, Bugianesi E. “Global burden of NAFLD and NASH: trends, predictions, risk factors and prevention”, Nature reviews Gastroenterology & hepatology. 2018 Jan;15(1):11. https://doi.org/10.1038/nrgastro.2017.109

. Bellentani S, Marino M. “Epidemiology and natural history of non-alcoholic liver disease (NAFLD)”, Annals of Hepatology. 2009;8(S1):4-8.

. Aguirre L, Portillo MP, Hijona E, Bujanda L. “Effects of resveratrol and other polyphenols in hepatic steatosis”, World journal of gastroenterology: WJG. 2014 Jun 21;20(23):7366. https://dx.doi.org/10.3748/wjg.v20.i23.7366

. Thoma C, Day CP, Trenell MI. “Lifestyle interventions for the treatment of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in adults: a systematic review”, Journal of hepatology. 2012 Jan 1;56(1):255-66. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhep.2011.06.010

. Younossi ZM, Koenig AB, Abdelatif D, Fazel Y, Henry L, Wymer M. “Global epidemiology of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease meta‐analytic assessment of prevalence, incidence, and outcomes”, Hepatology. 2016 Jul;64(1):73-84. https://doi.org/10.1002/hep.28431

. Anderson EL, Howe LD, Jones HE, Higgins JP, Lawlor DA, Fraser A. The prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in children and adolescents: a systematic review and meta-analysis. PloS one. 2015 Oct 29;10(10):e0140908.

. Marchesini G, Brizi M, Morselli-Labate AM, Bianchi G, Bugianesi E, McCullough AJ, Forlani G, Melchionda N. “Association of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease with insulin resistance”, The American journal of medicine. 1999 Nov 1;107(5):450-5. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0002-9343(99)00271-5

. Golabi P, Otgonsuren M, de Avila L, Sayiner M, Rafiq N, Younossi ZM. “Components of metabolic syndrome increase the risk of mortality in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD)”, Medicine. 2018 Mar;97(13). https://dx.doi.org/10.1097%2FMD.0000000000010214

. Calzadilla Bertot L, Adams LA. “The natural course of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease”, International journal of molecular sciences. 2016 May;17(5):774. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms17050774

. Buckley AJ, Thomas EL, Lessan N, Trovato FM, Trovato GM, Taylor-Robinson SD. “Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: Relationship with cardiovascular risk markers and clinical endpoints”, Diabetes research and clinical practice. 2018 Oct 1;144:144-52. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.diabres.2018.08.011

. Stepanova M, Younossi ZM. “Independent association between nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and cardiovascular disease in the US population”, Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology. 2012 Jun 1;10(6):646-50. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cgh.2011.12.039

. Chalasani N, Younossi Z, Lavine JE, Charlton M, Cusi K, Rinella M, Harrison SA, Brunt EM, Sanyal AJ. “The diagnosis and management of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: practice guidance from the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases”, Hepatology. 2018 Jan 1;67(1):328-57. https://doi.org/10.1002/hep.29367

. Golabi P, Otgonsuren M, Cable R, Felix S, Koenig A, Sayiner M, Younossi ZM. “Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is associated with impairment of health-related quality of life (HRQOL)”, Health and quality of life outcomes. 2016 Dec;14(1):18. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12955-016-0420-z

. Björnsson E, Angulo P. “Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease”, Scandinavian journal of gastroenterology. 2007 Jan 1;42(9):1023-30. https://doi.org/10.1080/00365520902845268

. Adams LA, Lindor KD. “Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease”, Annals of epidemiology. 2007 Nov 1;17(11):863-9. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.annepidem.2007.05.013

. Ong JP, Younossi ZM. “Epidemiology and natural history of NAFLD and NASH”, Clinics in liver disease. 2007 Feb 1;11(1):1-6. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cld.2007.02.009

. Angulo P. “GI epidemiology: nonalcoholic fatty liver disease”, Alimentary pharmacology & therapeutics. 2007 Apr;25(8):883-9. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2036.2007.03246.x

. Pinidiyapathirage MJ, Dassanayake AS, Rajindrajith S, Kalubowila U, Kato N, Wickremasinghe AR, de Silva HJ. “Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in a rural, physically active, low income population in Sri Lanka”, BMC research notes. 2011 Dec;4(1):513. https://doi.org/10.1186/1756-0500-4-513

. Farrell GC, Wong VW, Chitturi S. “NAFLD in Asia—as common and important as in the West”, Nature reviews Gastroenterology & hepatology. 2013 May;10(5):307. https://doi.org/10.1038/nrgastro.2013.34

. Ekstedt M, Franzén LE, Mathiesen UL, Thorelius L, Holmqvist M, Bodemar G, Kechagias S. “Long‐term follow‐up of patients with NAFLD and elevated liver enzymes”, Hepatology. 2006 Oct;44(4):865-73. https://doi.org/10.1002/hep.21327

. Amarapurkar D, Kamani P, Patel N, Gupte P, Kumar P, Agal S, Baijal R, Lala S, Chaudhary D, Deshpande A. “Prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: population-based study”, Annals of hepatology. 2007 Jul 1;6(3):161-3. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1665-2681(19)31922-2

. Haffner SM. “Relationship of metabolic risk factors and development of cardiovascular disease and diabetes”. Obesity. 2006 Jun;14(S6):121S-7S. https://doi.org/10.1038/oby.2006.291

. Bedogni G, Miglioli L, Masutti F, Tiribelli C, Marchesini G, Bellentani S. “Prevalence of and risk factors for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: the Dionysos nutrition and liver study”. Hepatology. 2005 Jul;42(1):44-52. https://doi.org/10.1002/hep.20734

. Neuschwander-Tetri BA, Caldwell SH. “Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis: summary of an AASLD Single Topic Conference”, Hepatology. 2003 May 1;37(5):1202-19. https://doi.org/10.1053/jhep.2003.50193

. Almobarak AO, Barakat S, Khalifa MH, Elhoweris MH, Elhassan TM, Ahmed MH. “Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in a Sudanese population: What is the prevalence and risk factors?”, Arab journal of gastroenterology. 2014 Mar 1;15(1):12-5. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajg.2014.01.008

. Asabamaka Onyekwere C, Ogbera AO, Balogun BO. “Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and the metabolic syndrome in an urban hospital serving an African community”, Annals of hepatology. 2016 Apr 15;10(2):119-24. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1665-2681(19)31559-5

. Lee YH, Kim SU, Song K, Park JY, Kim DY, Ahn SH, Lee BW, Kang ES, Cha BS, Han KH. “Sarcopenia is associated with significant liver fibrosis independently of obesity and insulin resistance in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: Nationwide surveys (KNHANES 2008‐2011)”, Hepatology. 2016 Mar;63(3):776-86. https://doi.org/10.1002/hep.28376

. Majumdar A, Misra P, Sharma S, Kant S, Krishnan A, Pandav CS. “Prevalence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in an adult population in a rural community of Haryana, India”, Indian journal of public health. 2016 Jan 1;60(1):26. https://DOI: 10.4103/0019-557X.177295

. Anurag L, Aniket S, Shalik J, Amarja L, Dhananjay R, Sachin J. “Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease prevalence and associated risk factors–A study from rural sector of Maharashtra”. Tropical Gastroenterology. 2015 Sep 16;36(1):25-30. http://dx.doi.org/10.7869/tg.241

. Nishioji K, Sumida Y, Kamaguchi M, Mochizuki N, Kobayashi M, Nishimura T, Yamaguchi K, Itoh Y. “Prevalence of and risk factors for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in a non-obese Japanese population, 2011–2012”, Journal of gastroenterology. 2015 Jan 1;50(1):95-108. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00535-014-0948-9

. Ryu S, Chang Y, Jung HS, Yun KE, Kwon MJ, Choi Y, Kim CW, Cho J, Suh BS, Cho YK, Chung EC. “Relationship of sitting time and physical activity with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease”, Journal of hepatology. 2015 Nov 1;63(5):1229-37. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhep.2015.07.010

. Chan R, Wong VW, Chu WC, Wong GL, Li LS, Leung J, Chim AM, Yeung DK, Sea MM, Woo J, Chan FK. “Diet-quality scores and prevalence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: a population study using proton-magnetic resonance spectroscopy”, PLoS One. 2015;10(9). https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0139310

. Li Z, Xue J, Chen P, Chen L, Yan S, Liu L. “Prevalence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in mainland of C hina: A meta‐analysis of published studies”, Journal of gastroenterology and hepatology. 2014 Jan;29(1):42-51. https://doi.org/10.1111/jgh.12428

. Cai W, Song JM, Zhang B, Sun YP, Yao H, Zhang YX. “The prevalence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and relationship with serum uric acid level in Uyghur population”, The Scientific World Journal. 2014;2014. https://doi.org/10.1155/2014/393628

. Shen HC, Zhao ZH, Hu YC, Chen YF, Tung TH. “Relationship between obesity, metabolic syndrome, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in the elderly agricultural and fishing population of Taiwan”, Clinical interventions in aging. 2014;9:501. https://dx.doi.org/10.2147/CIA.S59538

. Kim H, Lee K, Lee KW, Yi NJ, Lee HW, Hong G, Choi Y, You T, Suh SW, Jang JJ, Suh KS. “Histologically proven non‐alcoholic fatty liver disease and clinically related factors in recipients after liver transplantation”, Clinical transplantation. 2014 May;28(5):521-9. https://dx.doi.org/10.1097%2FMCG.0000000000000567

. Fung J, Lee CK, Chan M, Seto WK, Lai CL, Yuen MF, Hong Kong Liver Health Census Study Group. “High prevalence of non‐alcoholic fatty liver disease in the Chinese–results from the Hong Kong liver health census”, Liver International. 2015 Feb;35(2):542-9. https://doi.org/10.1111/liv.12619

. Cai W, Wu X, Zhang B, Miao L, Sun YP, Zou Y, Yao H. “Serum uric acid levels and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in Uyghur and Han ethnic groups in northwestern China”, Arquivos Brasileiros de Endocrinologia & Metabologia. 2013 Nov;57(8):617-22. https://doi.org/10.1590/S0004-27302013000800006

. Ju DY, Choe YG, Cho YK, Shin DS, Yoo SH, Yim SH, Lee JY, Park JH, Kim HJ, Park DI, Sohn CI. “The influence of waist circumference on insulin resistance and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in apparently healthy Korean adults”. Clinical and molecular hepatology. 2013 Jun;19(2):140. https://dx.doi.org/10.3350%2Fcmh.2013.19.2.140

. Jeong EH, Jun DW, Cho YK, Choe YG, Ryu S, Lee SM, Jang EC. “Regional prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in Seoul and Gyeonggi-do, Korea”. Clinical and molecular hepatology. 2013 Sep;19(3):266. https://dx.doi.org/10.3350%2Fcmh.2013.19.3.266

. Chang Y, Jung HS, Yun KE, Cho J, Cho YK, Ryu S. “Cohort study of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, NAFLD fibrosis score, and the risk of incident diabetes in a Korean population”, American Journal of Gastroenterology. 2013 Dec 1;108(12):1861-8. https://doi: 10.1038/ajg.2013.349

. Kim S, Kwon H, Park JH, Cho B, Kim D, Oh SW, Lee CM, Choi HC. “A low level of serum total testosterone is independently associated with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.” BMC gastroenterology. 2012 Dec 1;12(1):69. https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-230X-12-69

. Wong VW, Chu WC, Wong GL, Chan RS, Chim AM, Ong A, Yeung DK, Yiu KK, Chu SH, Woo J, Chan FK. “Prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and advanced fibrosis in Hong Kong Chinese: a population study using proton-magnetic resonance spectroscopy and transient elastography”. Gut. 2012 Mar 1;61(3):409-15. http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/gutjnl-2011-300342

. Dassanayake AS, Kasturiratne A, Rajindrajith S, Kalubowila U, Chakrawarthi S, De Silva AP, Makaya M, Mizoue T, Kato N, Wickremasinghe AR, De Silva HJ. “Prevalence and risk factors for non‐alcoholic fatty liver disease among adults in an urban Sri Lankan population”, Journal of gastroenterology and hepatology. 2009 Jul;24(7):1284-8. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1440-1746.2009.05831.x

. Kanerva N, Sandboge S, Kaartinen NE, Männistö S, Eriksson JG. “Higher fructose intake is inversely associated with risk of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in older Finnish adults”, The American journal of clinical nutrition. 2014 Oct 1;100(4):1133-8. https://doi.org/10.3945/ajcn.114.086074

. Van der Voort EA, Koehler EM, Dowlatshahi EA, Hofman A, Stricker BH, Janssen HL, Schouten JN, Nijsten T. “Psoriasis is independently associated with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in patients 55 years old or older: Results from a population-based study”, Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology. 2014 Mar 1;70(3):517-24. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaad.2013.10.044

. Armstrong MJ, Houlihan DD, Bentham L, Shaw JC, Cramb R, Olliff S, Gill PS, Neuberger JM, Lilford RJ, Newsome PN. “Presence and severity of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in a large prospective primary care cohort”, Journal of hepatology. 2012 Jan 1;56(1):234-40. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhep.2011.03.020

. Tárnoki ÁD, Tárnoki DL, Horváth T, Métneki J, Littvay L. “Hungarian twin studies: results of four decades”. Orvosi Hetilap. 2013 Oct 1;154(40):1579-86. https://doi.org/10.1556/oh.2013.29707

. Caballería L, Pera G, Auladell MA, Torán P, Muñoz L, Miranda D, Alumà A, Casas JD, Sánchez C, Gil D, Aubà J. “Prevalence and factors associated with the presence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in an adult population in Spain”, European journal of gastroenterology & hepatology. 2010 Jan 1;22(1):24-32. https://doi: 10.1097/MEG.0b013e32832fcdf0

. Rocha R, Cotrim HP, Bitencourt AG, Barbosa DB, Santos AS, de Moura Almeida A, Cunha B, Guimarães I. “Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in asymptomatic Brazilian adolescents”. World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG. 2009 Jan 28;15(4):473. https://dx.doi.org/10.3748/wjg.15.473

. Perez M, Gonzales L, Olarte R, Rodriguez NI, Tabares M, Salazar JP, Jaimes S, García RG, López-Jaramillo P. “Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease is associated with insulin resistance in a young Hispanic population”. Preventive medicine. 2011 Feb 1;52(2):174-7. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ypmed.2010.11.021

. Motamed N, Rabiee B, Poustchi H, Dehestani B, Hemasi GR, Khonsari MR, Maadi M, Saeedian FS, Zamani F. “Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and 10-year risk of cardiovascular diseases”, Clinics and research in hepatology and gastroenterology. 2017 Feb 1;41(1):31-8. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.clinre.2016.07.005

. Kasapoglu B, Turkay C, Yalcin KS, Carlioglu A, Sozen M, Koktener A. “Low vitamin D levels are associated with increased risk for fatty liver disease among non-obese adults”, Clinical medicine. 2013 Dec;13(6):576. https://dx.doi.org/10.7861/clinmedicine.13-6-576

. Zelber‐Sagi S, Lotan R, Shibolet O, Webb M, Buch A, Nitzan‐Kaluski D, Halpern Z, Santo E, Oren R. “Non‐alcoholic fatty liver disease independently predicts prediabetes during a 7‐year prospective follow‐up”, Liver International. 2013 Oct;33(9):1406-12. https://doi.org/10.1111/liv.12200

. Zelber‐Sagi S, Salomone F, Yeshua H, Lotan R, Webb M, Halpern Z, Santo E, Oren R, Shibolet O. “Non‐high‐density lipoprotein cholesterol independently predicts new onset of non‐alcoholic fatty liver disease”, Liver International. 2014 Jul;34(6):e128-35. https://doi.org/10.1111/liv.12318

. Eshraghian A, Dabbaghmanesh MH, Eshraghian H, Fattahi MR, Omrani GR. “Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in a cluster of Iranian population: thyroid status and metabolic risk factor”, Archives of Iranian medicine. 2013 Oct 1;16(10):584. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24093139

. Golabi P, Otgonsuren M, de Avila L, Sayiner M, Rafiq N, Younossi ZM. “Components of metabolic syndrome increase the risk of mortality in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD”). Medicine. 2018 Mar;97(13). https://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000010214

. Sayiner M, Koenig A, Henry L, Younossi ZM. “Epidemiology of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis in the United States and the rest of the world”, Clinics in liver disease. 2016 May 1;20(2):205-14. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cld.2015.10.001

. Younossi ZM, Otgonsuren M, Venkatesan C, Mishra A. In patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, metabolically abnormal individuals are at a higher risk for mortality while metabolically normal individuals are not. Metabolism. 2013 Mar 1;62(3):352-60. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.metabol.2012.08.005

. Ruhl CE, Everhart JE. “Relationship of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease with cholecystectomy in the US population”, American Journal of Gastroenterology. 2013 Jun 1;108(6):952-8. https://doi: 10.1038/ajg.2013.70

. Lazo M, Hernaez R, Eberhardt MS, Bonekamp S, Kamel I, Guallar E, Koteish A, Brancati FL, Clark JM. “Prevalence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in the United States: the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1988–1994”, American journal of epidemiology. 2013 Jul 1;178(1):38-45. https://doi.org/10.1093/aje/kws448

. Foster T, Anania FA, Li D, Katz R, Budoff M. The prevalence and clinical correlates of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in African Americans: the multiethnic study of atherosclerosis (MESA). Digestive diseases and sciences. 2013 Aug 1;58(8):2392-8. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10620-013-2652-7

. Kim D, Kim WR, Kim HJ, Therneau TM. “Association between noninvasive fibrosis markers and mortality among adults with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in the United States”. Hepatology. 2013 Apr;57(4):1357-65. https://doi.org/10.1002/hep.26156

. Otgonsuren M, Stepanova M, Gerber L, Younossi ZM. “Anthropometric and clinical factors associated with mortality in subjects with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease”, Digestive diseases and sciences. 2013 Apr 1;58(4):1132-40. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10620-012-2446-3

. Younossi ZM, Stepanova M, Negro F, Hallaji S, Younossi Y, Lam B, Srishord M. “Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in lean individuals in the United States”, Medicine. 2012 Nov 1;91(6):319-27. https://doi: 10.1097/MD.0b013e3182779d49

. Williams CD, Stengel J, Asike MI, Torres DM, Shaw J, Contreras M, Landt CL, Harrison SA. “Prevalence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis among a largely middle-aged population utilizing ultrasound and liver biopsy: a prospective study”, Gastroenterology. 2011 Jan 1;140(1):124-31. https://doi.org/10.1053/j.gastro.2010.09.038

. Lazo M, Hernaez R, Bonekamp S, Kamel IR, Brancati FL, Guallar E, Clark JM. “Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and mortality among US adults: prospective cohort study”. Bmj. 2011 Nov 18;343:d6891. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.d6891

. Mohanty SR, Troy TN, Huo D, O’Brien BL, Jensen DM, Hart J. “Influence of ethnicity on histological differences in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease”, Journal of hepatology. 2009 Apr 1;50(4):797-804. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhep.2008.11.017

. Arciello M, Gori M, Maggio R, Barbaro B, Tarocchi M, Galli A, Balsano C. “Environmental pollution: a tangible risk for NAFLD pathogenesis”. International journal of molecular sciences. 2013 Nov;14(11):22052-66. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms141122052

. Naik A, Rozman D. “Genomic aspects of NAFLD pathogenesis”. Genomics. 2013 Aug 1;102(2):84-95. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ygeno.2013.03.007

. Roskams TA, Libbrecht L, Desmet VJ. “Progenitor cells in diseased human liver. InSeminars in liver disease 2003 (Vol. 23, No. 04, pp. 385-396)”, Copyright© 2003 by Thieme Medical Publishers, Inc., 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA. Tel.:+ 1 (212) 584-4662. https://DOI: 10.1055/s-2004-815564

. Jou J, Choi SS, Diehl AM. “Mechanisms of disease progression in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease”, InSeminars in liver disease 2008 Nov (Vol. 28, No. 04, pp. 370-379). © Thieme Medical Publishers. https://DOI: 10.1055/s-0028-1091981

. Buzzetti E, Pinzani M, Tsochatzis EA. “The multiple-hit pathogenesis of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD)”, Metabolism. 2016 Aug 1;65(8):1038-48. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.metabol.2015.12.012

. Weigand K, Weigand K. “Percutaneous liver biopsy: retrospective study over 15 years comparing 287 inpatients with 428 outpatients”. Journal of gastroenterology and hepatology. 2009 May;24(5):792-9. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1440-1746.2008.05718.x

. Merriman RB, Ferrell LD, Patti MG, Weston SR, Pabst MS, Aouizerat BE, Bass NM. Correlation of paired liver biopsies in morbidly obese patients with suspected nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Hepatology. 2006 Oct;44(4):874-80. https://doi.org/10.1002/hep.21346

. Abiru S, Migita K, Maeda Y, Daikoku M, Ito M, Ohata K, Nagaoka S, Matsumoto T, Takii Y, Kusumoto K, Nakamura M. “Serum cytokine and soluble cytokine receptor levels in patients with non‐alcoholic steatohepatitis”, Liver International. 2006 Feb;26(1):39-45. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1478-3231.2005.01191.x

. García-Galiano D, Sánchez-Garrido MA, Espejo I, Montero JL, Costán G, Marchal T, Membrives A, Gallardo-Valverde JM, Muñoz-Castañeda JR, Arévalo E, De la Mata M. “IL-6 and IGF-1 are independent prognostic factors of liver steatosis and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis in morbidly obese patients”, Obesity surgery. 2007 Apr 1;17(4):493. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11695-007-9087-1

. Tarantino G, Conca P, Pasanisi F, Ariello M, Mastrolia M, Arena A, Tarantino M, Scopacasa F, Vecchione R. “Could inflammatory markers help diagnose nonalcoholic steatohepatitis?”, European journal of gastroenterology & hepatology. 2009 May 1;21(5):504-11. https://doi: 10.1097/MEG.0b013e3283229b40

. Alaaeddine N, Hilal G, Baddoura R, Antoniou J, Di Battista JA. “CCL20 stimulates proinflammatory mediator synthesis in human fibroblast-like synoviocytes through a MAP kinase-dependent process with transcriptional and posttranscriptional control”, The Journal of rheumatology. 2011 Sep 1;38(9):1858-65. https://doi.org/10.3899/jrheum.110049

. Yeniova AO, Küçükazman M, Ata N, Dal K, Kefeli A, Başyiğit S, Aktaş B, Ağladioğlu K, Akin KO, Ertugrul DT, Nazligül Y. “High-sensitivity C-reactive protein is a strong predictor of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease”. Hepato-gastroenterology. 2014;61(130):422. https://doi: 10.1111/jgh.12271.

. Yoneda M, Mawatari H, Fujita K, Iida H, Yonemitsu K, Kato S, Takahashi H, Kirikoshi H, Inamori M, Nozaki Y, Abe Y. “High-sensitivity C-reactive protein is an independent clinical feature of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and also of the severity of fibrosis in NASH”, Journal of gastroenterology. 2007 Jul 1;42(7):573-82. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00535-007-2060-x

. Yoneda M, Nozaki Y, Endo H, Mawatari H, Iida H, Fujita K, Yoneda K, Takahashi H, Kirikoshi H, Inamori M, Kobayashi N. Serum ferritin is a clinical biomarker in Japanese patients with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) independent of HFE gene mutation. Digestive diseases and sciences. 2010 Mar 1;55(3):808-14. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10620-009-0771-y

. Kowdley KV, Belt P, Wilson LA, Yeh MM, Neuschwander‐Tetri BA, Chalasani N, Sanyal AJ, Nelson JE. “NASH Clinical Research Network. Serum ferritin is an independent predictor of histologic severity and advanced fibrosis in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease”, Hepatology. 2012 Jan;55(1):77-85. https://doi.org/10.1002/hep.24706

. Manousou P, Kalambokis G, Grillo F, Watkins J, Xirouchakis E, Pleguezuelo M, Leandro G, Arvaniti V, Germani G, Patch D, Calvaruso V. “Serum ferritin is a discriminant marker for both fibrosis and inflammation in histologically proven non‐alcoholic fatty liver disease patients”. Liver International. 2011 May;31(5):730-9. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1478-3231.2011.02488.x

. Poynard T, Ratziu V, Naveau S, Thabut D, Charlotte F, Messous D, Capron D, Abella A, Massard J, Ngo Y, Munteanu M. “The diagnostic value of biomarkers (SteatoTest) for the prediction of liver steatosis”. Comparative hepatology. 2005 Dec 1;4(1):10. https://doi.org/10.1186/1476-5926-4-10

. Poynard T, Morra R, Halfon P, Castera L, Ratziu V, Imbert-Bismut F, Naveau S, Thabut D, Lebrec D, Zoulim F, Bourliere M. “Meta-analyses of FibroTest diagnostic value in chronic liver disease”, BMC gastroenterology. 2007 Dec;7(1):40. https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-230X-7-40

. Varnholt H, Drebber U, Schulze F, Wedemeyer I, Schirmacher P, Dienes HP, Odenthal M. “MicroRNA gene expression profile of hepatitis C virus–associated hepatocellular carcinoma”, Hepatology. 2008 Apr;47(4):1223-32. https://doi.org/10.1002/hep.22158

. Mizuguchi Y, Mishima T, Yokomuro S, Arima Y, Kawahigashi Y, Shigehara K, Kanda T, Yoshida H, Uchida E, Tajiri T, Takizawa T. “Sequencing and bioinformatics-based analyses of the microRNA transcriptome in Hepatitis B–related hepatocellular carcinoma”, PloS one. 2011 Jan 25;6(1):e15304. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0015304

. Cermelli S, Ruggieri A, Marrero JA, Ioannou GN, Beretta L. “Circulating microRNAs in patients with chronic hepatitis C and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease”. PloS one. 2011 Aug 23;6(8):e23937. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0023937

. Dong SH, Zhang JF, Tang YM, Li J, Xiang YR, Liang QL. “Chemical constituents from the tubers of Scirpus yagara and their anti-inflammatory activities”, Journal of Asian natural products research. 2016 Aug 2;18(8):791-7. https://doi.org/10.1080/10286020.2016.1158166

. Yao H, Qiao YJ, Zhao YL, Tao XF, Xu LN, Yin LH, Qi Y, Peng JY. “Herbal medicines and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease”. World Journal of Gastroenterology. 2016 Aug 14;22(30):6890. https://dx.doi.org/10.3748/wjg.v22.i30.6890

. Zhang H, Hu YY, Feng Q. “Inhibitory effects of Qushi Huayu Decoction on fatty deposition and tumor necrosis factor alpha secretion in HepG2 cells induced by free fatty acid”, Zhongguo Zhong xi yi jie he za zhi Zhongguo Zhongxiyi jiehe zazhi= Chinese journal of integrated traditional and Western medicine. 2007 Dec;27(12):1105-9. PMID: 18198645

. Fan JG. “Evaluating the efficacy and safety of Danning Pian in the short-term treatment of patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: a multicenter clinical trial”, Hepatobiliary & pancreatic diseases international: HBPD INT. 2004 Aug;3(3):375-80. PMID: 15313672

. Zhou HB, Chen JM, Shao LM, Chen ZG. “Apoptosis of human pancreatic carcinoma cell-1 cells induced by Yin Chen Hao Decoction”, World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG. 2015 Jul 21;21(27):8352. https://dx.doi.org/10.3748/wjg.v21.i27.8352

. Wang N, Dong H, Wei S, Lu F. Application of proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy and computerized tomography in the diagnosis and treatment of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Journal of Huazhong University of Science and Technology [Medical Sciences]. 2008 Jun 1;28(3):295-8. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11596-008-0315-2

. Tao W, Deqin Z, Yuhong L, Hong L, Zhanbiao L, Chunfeng Z, Limin H, Xiumei G. “Regulation effects on abnormal glucose and lipid metabolism of TZQ-F, a new kind of Traditional Chinese Medicine”, Journal of ethnopharmacology. 2010 Apr 21;128(3):575-82. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2010.01.044

. Ma Y, Zhao J, Yang S, Jia Y. “Cigu Xiaozhi pills's influence on lipid peroxidation and TNF-alpha expression in liver tissues of rats with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis”, Zhongguo Zhong yao za zhi= Zhongguo zhongyao zazhi= China journal of Chinese materia medica. 2010 May;35(10):1292-7. https://doi.org/10.4268/cjcmm20101016

. Zhang Q, Zhao Y, Zhang DB, Sun LJ. “Effect of Sinai san decoction on the development of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis in rats.”, World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG. 2005 Mar 7;11(9):1392. https://dx.doi.org/10.3748/wjg.v11.i9.1392

. Cacciapuoti F, Scognamiglio A, Palumbo R, Forte R, Cacciapuoti F. “Silymarin in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease”. World journal of hepatology. 2013 Mar 27;5(3):109. https://dx.doi.org/10.4254/wjh.v5.i3.109

. Surai PF. “Silymarin as a natural antioxidant: an overview of the current evidence and perspectives”. Antioxidants. 2015 Mar;4(1):204-47. https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox4010204

. Saller R, Meier R, Brignoli R. “The use of silymarin in the treatment of liver diseases”. Drugs. 2001 Dec 1;61(14):2035-63. https://doi.org/10.2165/00003495-200161140-00003

. Abenavoli L, Aviello G, Capasso R, Milic N, Capasso F. “Milk thistle for treatment of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease”. 2011 Mar 11;3(32):173-177.

. Flory PJ, Krug G, Lorenz D, Mennicke WH. Studies on elimination of silymarin in cholecystectomized patients. I. “Biliary and renal elimination after a single oral dose”. Planta medica. 1980 Mar;38(3):227. https://doi.org/10.1055/s-2008-1074867

. Hawke RL, Schrieber SJ, Soule TA, Wen Z, Smith PC, Reddy KR, Wahed AS, Belle SH, Afdhal NH, Navarro VJ, Berman J. “Silymarin ascending multiple oral dosing phase I study in noncirrhotic patients with chronic hepatitis C”. The Journal of Clinical Pharmacology. 2010 Apr;50(4):434-49. https://doi.org/10.1177/0091270009347475

. Pellicoro A, Ramachandran P, Iredale JP, Fallowfield JA. “Liver fibrosis and repair: immune regulation of wound healing in a solid organ”, Nature Reviews Immunology. 2014 Mar;14(3):181-94. https://doi.org/10.1177/0091270009347475

. Noel-Hudson MS, De Belilovsky C, Petit N, Lindenbaum A, Wepierre J. “In vitro cytotoxic effects of enzymatically induced oxygen radicals in human fibroblasts: experimental procedures and protection by radical scavengers”, Toxicology in vitro. 1989 Jan 1;3(2):103-9. https://doi.org/10.1016/0887-2333(89)90052-0

. Diamant M, Blaak EE, De Vos WM. “Do nutrient–gut–microbiota interactions play a role in human obesity, insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes?”, Obesity reviews. 2011 Apr;12(4):272-81. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-789X.2010.00797.x

. Saha S, Tomaro-Duchesneau C, Tabrizian M, Prakash S. “Probiotics as oral health biotherapeutics”, Expert opinion on biological therapy. 2012 Sep 1;12(9):1207-20. https://doi.org/10.1517/14712598.2012.693474

. Abeijón Mukdsi MC, Gauffin Cano MP, Gonzalez SN, Medina RB. “Administration of Lactobacillus fermentum CRL1446 increases intestinal feruloyl esterase activity in mice”, Letters in applied microbiology. 2012 Jan;54(1):18-25. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1472-765X.2011.03166.x

. Tomaro-Duchesneau C, Saha S, Malhotra M, Coussa-Charley M, Al-Salami H, Jones M, Labbé A, Prakash S. “Lactobacillus fermentum NCIMB 5221 has a greater ferulic acid production compared to other ferulic acid esterase producing Lactobacill”, International Journal of Probiotics and Prebiotics. 2012;7(1):23-32. http://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11937/47062

. Bhathena J, Martoni C, Kulamarva A, Tomaro-Duchesneau C, Malhotra M, Paul A, Urbanska AM, Prakash S. “Oral probiotic microcapsule formulation ameliorates non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in Bio F1B Golden Syrian hamsters”, PLoS One. 2013;8(3). https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0058394

. Fujimoto M, Tsuneyama K, Kainuma M, Sekiya N, Goto H, Takano Y, Terasawa K, Selmi C, Gershwin ME, Shimada Y. “Evidence-based efficacy of Kampo formulas in a model of non-alcoholic fatty liver”, Experimental Biology and Medicine. 2008 Mar;233(3):328-37. https://doi.org/10.3181%2F0707-RM-207

. Gaggini M, Morelli M, Buzzigoli E, DeFronzo RA, Bugianesi E, Gastaldelli A. “Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and its connection with insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease”, Nutrients. 2013 May;5(5):1544-60. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu5051544

. Stein LL, Dong MH, Loomba R. “Insulin sensitizers in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and steatohepatitis: Current status”, Advances in therapy. 2009 Oct 1;26(10):893. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12325-009-0072-z

. Nair S, Diehl AM, Wiseman M, Farr Jr GH, Perrillo RP. “Metformin in the treatment of non‐alcoholic steatohepatitis: a pilot open label trial”, Alimentary pharmacology & therapeutics. 2004 Jul;20(1):23-8. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2036.2004.02025.x

. Xiao WH, Wang YR, Hou WF, Xie C, Wang HN, Hong TP, Gao HW. “The effects of pioglitazone on biochemical markers of bone turnover in the patients with type 2 diabetes”, International journal of endocrinology. 2013;2013. https://doi.org/10.1155/2013/290734

Downloads

Published

2020-11-27

Issue

Section

Graduate Reviews

How to Cite

[1]
S. Akhtar and A. Khan, “Analysis of Metabolic Biomarkers in Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD); A Comprehensive Review”, Adv. J. Grad. Res., vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 46-58, Nov. 2020.